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How to Become a Translator

By Nikita Ross


As the world becomes more interconnected and smaller due to technology, companies in all industries must implement diversification and globalization strategies to survive. This means translating key content to other languages to create a global reach.

That’s where translators come in.

In this article, we’ll explore how to become a translator and answer key questions like the difference between translator and interpreter, how much do translators make, and how to become a certified translator.

Career Summary

How Much Do Translators Make?

Translator Salary

Several factors influence how much money translators make, including education, experience level, specialization, and the type of organization they work for.

However, this is an accurate estimate based on available data:

  • Entry Salary (US$43k)
  • Median Salary (US$55k)
  • Executive Salary (US$72k)

An entry-level translator makes significantly lower than the national average income, surpassing the national average when advancing to senior positions.

What does a Translator do?

A translator translates texts from one language to another based on a deep understanding of both languages. This understanding is essential for picking up on cultural meanings, slang, syntax, and nuanced information to avoid losing context in translation.

Translator vs Interpreter: Key differences

Translators primarily work with written text, translating content from one language to another while preserving meaning, style, and cultural nuances.

Interpreters, on the other hand, focus on spoken communication, facilitating real-time conversations between speakers of different languages.

While both roles involve language mediation, they are distinct in the medium they work with—written for translators and spoken for interpreters.

Translator Career Progression

The career path and progression of a translator can look incredibly different from one specialty or focus to the next. However, this is a high-level overview of how a translator’s career pathway might look.

  • Junior Translator or Translation Assistant: Responsible for assisting senior translators with translation tasks while learning and improving translation skills.
  • Translator: Responsible for independently handling translation projects and developing expertise in a specific field or specialization.
  • Senior Translator or Lead Translator: Responsible for leading larger and more complex translation projects while mentoring and providing guidance to junior translators.
  • Translation Project Manager: Responsible for overseeing translation projects from initiation to completion and coordinating teams of translators, editors, and proofreaders. Also acts as the go-between with clients and quality control.
  • Translation Specialist or Subject Matter Expert: Responsible for being a recognized expert in a specific field or industry who can handle complex and specialized translation projects.
  • Translation Director: Responsible for leading and managing a team of translators and project managers, setting translation quality standards and best practices, and making strategic decisions to enhance translation processes and efficiency.
Translator Career Progression


  • Language mastery.
  • Cultural connection.
  • Flexible work.
  • Intellectual challenge.
  • Making a global impact.
  • Independence and autonomy.


  • Isolation.
  • Variable income.
  • Unpredictable workload.
  • Tight deadlines.
  • Potential for repetitive content.
  • Demanding clients or bosses (high expectations).
  • Competitive industry.

Useful Skills to Have as a Translator

  • Cultural Sensitivity
  • Excellent Writing Skills
  • Attention to Detail
  • Research Skills
  • Computer Skills

Popular Translator Specialties

  • Literary Translation
  • Technical Translation
  • Legal Translation
  • Medical Translation
  • Localization

How to become a Translator

Translator 5 Steps to Career

Translator Education Requirements

Determining how to become a certified translator starts with exploring the various education options for this career path. Let’s explore the broad landscape of choosing the best path to becoming a translator.

Do I need a degree to become a translator?

While a formal degree is not always a strict requirement to become a translator, it is recommended. A degree can significantly enhance your credibility, skills, and job prospects in the field.

Here are a few points to consider when choosing your educational pathway:

  • Bachelor’s Degree: Many professional translators hold a bachelor’s degree in languages, linguistics, translation studies, or a related field. These programs offer coursework that covers linguistic principles, translation techniques, cultural studies, and more.
  • Master’s Degree: Some individuals pursue a master’s degree in translation studies or a specialized field to gain a deeper understanding of translation theory, advanced translation techniques, and specialized knowledge in areas such as legal, medical, or technical translation.
  • Certifications: Even if you don’t have a degree, obtaining certification from recognized translation associations can demonstrate your expertise and commitment to the profession. Organizations like the American Translators Association (ATA) and the Chartered Institute of Linguists (CIOL) offer certification exams.
  • Specialization: If you plan to specialize in a particular field, such as legal or medical translation, having relevant education or training in that field can be highly beneficial.

Why is it important to get a degree in Linguistics or Language?

Getting a degree in translation or a related field can offer several important advantages for aspiring translators:

  • Fundamental Knowledge: A formal education provides a strong foundation in linguistics, grammar, and language structure. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the intricacies of languages and effectively conveying meaning during translation.
  • Translation Theory: Degree programs often include courses on translation theory and techniques. Studying these concepts helps you better understand the complexities involved in translation and learn proven strategies for producing accurate and high-quality translations.
  • Cultural Competence: Many degree programs include courses on cultural studies, which help you understand the cultural context and nuances that affect translation. This understanding is essential for producing culturally sensitive and contextually accurate translations.
  • Specialization: If you’re interested in specializing in a specific field, such as legal, medical, technical, or literary translation, a degree program can provide you with specialized knowledge and terminology relevant to that field.
  • Networking: College and university environments offer opportunities to connect with professors, fellow students, and professionals in the industry. These connections can lead to internships, mentorships, and job opportunities.
  • Certification Requirements: Some translation associations and organizations require a degree or specific educational qualifications to be eligible for certification. Being certified can enhance your credibility and job prospects.
  • Professional Development: Degree programs often include practical projects, assignments, and critiques that help you refine your translation skills and receive feedback from experienced instructors.
  • Industry Exposure: Academic programs may invite guest speakers from the translation industry, provide access to translation-related events, and offer insights into the latest trends and technologies in the field.
  • Employment Opportunities: Many employers, especially larger organizations, prefer or require candidates to have a degree in translation or a related field. Having a degree can make you more competitive in the job market.
  • Quality Assurance: Clients and employers often have higher confidence in translators with formal education, believing that these individuals are more likely to produce accurate and reliable translations.
  • Personal Growth: Pursuing a degree is an opportunity for personal growth and development. It challenges you to think critically, refine your language skills, and broaden your understanding of cultures and communication.

How long does it take to get a degree in Translation?

The duration of a degree in languages, linguistics, translation studies, or a related field can vary depending on the level of the degree, the specific program, and whether you’re studying full-time or part-time.

Here’s a general overview of the typical durations for different levels of degrees:

  • Bachelor’s Degree: A bachelor’s degree in languages, linguistics, translation studies, or a related field usually takes around 3 to 4 years of full-time study. Some programs offer accelerated options or allow you to take longer if you’re studying part-time.
  • Master’s Degree: A master’s degree in translation studies or a related field typically takes about 1 to 2 years of full-time study after the completion of a bachelor’s degree. Some programs offer part-time options to accommodate working professionals, which could extend the time to completion.
  • Ph.D. Degree: Pursuing a Ph.D. in linguistics, translation studies, or a related field can take 3 to 5 years or more of full-time study after completing a master’s degree, depending on the research and dissertation requirements.

These durations are approximate and can vary depending on factors such as the specific curriculum, the number of required courses, the institution’s scheduling options, and your own pace of study.

Additionally, some programs may offer summer sessions or intensive programs that can shorten the overall duration.

How much does it cost to study Translation at a university?

The cost of obtaining a translator certification or degree depends on the school attended and the level of education.

For context, attending a top-ranked public college in-state costs significantly less—about 74% lower—than the average expense of a private college, according to data for the 2022-2023 academic year.

State residents pay around $10,423 compared to the $39,723 average for private institutions. For out-of-state students, the average expense at public colleges is $22,953 for the same period.

Can I become a translator through online education?

Yes, you can definitely become a translator through online education. Online education has become increasingly popular and accessible, offering a flexible and convenient way to acquire the skills and knowledge needed to pursue a career as a translator.

Here are some steps you can take to become a translator through online education:

  • Choose a Specialization: Decide on the type of translation you’re interested in, such as literary, legal, medical, technical, or business translation. This will help you focus your online education efforts on relevant courses.
  • Research Online Programs: Look for reputable online programs or courses that offer training in translation, language studies, or related fields. Many universities and institutions offer online courses and full degree programs in translation studies or linguistics.
  • Enroll in Relevant Courses: Enroll in online courses that cover translation techniques, linguistic principles, cultural understanding, and any specialization you’re interested in. Courses might cover topics like terminology management, CAT (Computer-Assisted Translation) tools, and ethics in translation.
  • Practice Translation: Practice is crucial to becoming a skilled translator. Work on translation exercises and projects to hone your skills. Many online courses provide practical assignments that mimic real-world translation scenarios.
  • Participate in Workshops and Webinars: Many translation associations and organizations offer online workshops, webinars, and events to help you stay updated on industry trends, learn from experienced translators, and network with professionals.
  • Build a Portfolio: As you complete translation assignments, build a portfolio showcasing your best work. This portfolio can be valuable when applying for jobs or freelance opportunities.
  • Stay Current: Keep up with advancements in translation technology and industry best practices through online resources, forums, and online communities.
  • Consider Certification: While not mandatory, obtaining a certification from reputable translation associations like the American Translators Association (ATA) can enhance your credibility as a translator. Some associations also offer online certification preparation courses.
  • Network Online: Utilize social media platforms, online forums, and professional networks to connect with other translators, learn from their experiences, and potentially find job opportunities.
  • Gain Experience: As you build your skills, consider taking on freelance translation projects or internships to gain practical experience and further develop your portfolio.

Online education can be a viable and flexible option for becoming a translator, especially if you have other commitments or prefer a self-paced learning approach.

However, make sure to choose reputable online programs or courses that offer comprehensive and relevant content to ensure you’re well-prepared for a successful career as a translator.

Web Resources to Learn Skills to Become a Translator

  • MIT OpenCourseWare: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) offers free course materials for various subjects, including linguistics and translation. While you won’t receive formal certification, you can access high-quality educational content.
  • ProZ is a community and resource hub for translators. It offers forums, articles, webinars, and networking opportunities for aspiring and professional translators.
  • American Translators Association (ATA): ATA provides various resources, including webinars, online courses, and conference materials, to help translators improve their skills and stay updated on industry trends.
  • University of Geneva Translation MOOCs: These Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offered by the University of Geneva cover various aspects of translation, from theoretical foundations to practical skills.
  • Linguistic Society of America (LSA): LSA offers resources and information on linguistics, language study, and related fields.

Practical Experience

Remember that while educational resources are valuable, hands-on practice and feedback are essential for developing your skills as a translator.

Engaging with translation projects, seeking mentorship, and participating in online translation communities can provide practical experience and guidance to complement your learning.

What are internship opportunities for a Translator?

Internship opportunities for translators can provide valuable hands-on experience and exposure to the translation industry.

Internships allow aspiring translators to apply their skills in real-world scenarios, work alongside experienced professionals, and gain insights into the workflow and expectations of the industry. 

You can explore various channels to find internships that offer valuable industry experience. Online job platforms like LinkedIn, Indeed, and specialized translation websites such as ProZ and TranslatorsCafé are excellent starting points.

Don’t overlook the resources within academic institutions, such as university career services and job fairs, as they often provide tailored opportunities and guidance. Social media groups and professional associations like the American Translators Association can also be useful for networking and finding internship leads.

Direct outreach to translation agencies, legal firms, healthcare providers, and international organizations can also yield promising opportunities.

Freelance platforms like Upwork or Fiverr may offer short-term gigs. While not traditional internships, taking on small translation projects as a freelance translator can give you practical experience and help build your portfolio.

When seeking internship opportunities, proactively research potential organizations, contact them, and express your interest. Many internships may not be publicly advertised, so networking and contacting companies directly can be beneficial.

Internships may be paid or unpaid, so be sure to clarify compensation and expectations before accepting an offer.

What Skills will I learn as a translator?

As a translator, you will develop a wide range of skills essential for effectively conveying meaning and maintaining content integrity across different languages. 

These skills go beyond mere language proficiency and encompass various aspects of communication, cultural understanding, and problem-solving.

Here are some of the key skills you will learn as a translator:

  • Language Proficiency: Mastery of at least two languages is fundamental. You’ll refine your grammar, vocabulary, syntax, and idiomatic expressions in both the source and target languages.
  • Translation Techniques: You’ll learn various techniques for accurately transferring meaning between languages while accounting for cultural differences and linguistic nuances.
  • Cultural Awareness: Understanding cultural contexts and nuances is vital for producing culturally sensitive and appropriate translations for the target audience.
  • Contextual Understanding: Translators need to grasp the context of the original content to ensure the translated version conveys the intended meaning accurately.
  • Research Skills: Translators often encounter unfamiliar terminology or specialized subject matter. Effective research skills help you find accurate and appropriate translations or explanations.
  • Critical Thinking: You’ll develop the ability to analyze and interpret complex texts, allowing you to make informed decisions about translating ambiguous or unclear passages.
  • Adaptation: Translators adapt content to fit the target language’s linguistic, cultural, and stylistic norms while preserving the author’s voice and intent.
  • Attention to Detail: Precision is crucial in translation. You’ll learn to catch subtle nuances, avoid errors, and maintain consistency throughout a text.
  • Time Management: Meeting deadlines is essential in the translation industry. You’ll develop time management skills to ensure the timely delivery of high-quality translations.
  • Use of CAT Tools: Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools help translators manage terminology, maintain consistency, and streamline their work. Familiarity with CAT tools is beneficial.
  • Editing and Proofreading: Translators often review their work to catch errors, improve readability, and ensure the translated content aligns with the original.
  • Ethical Considerations: Translators deal with sensitive and confidential information. You’ll learn ethical guidelines and principles related to client confidentiality and accuracy.
  • Communication Skills: Effective communication with clients, editors, and colleagues is crucial for understanding project requirements and delivering high-quality translations.
  • Continuous Learning: Language and culture are constantly evolving. Translators must stay updated with linguistic changes, industry trends, and advancements in translation technology.

These skills collectively contribute to your ability to bridge linguistic and cultural gaps, enabling effective communication between individuals who speak different languages. As you gain experience and refine these skills, you’ll become a more proficient and sought-after translator.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Translator?

The work-life balance of a translator can vary based on factors such as your specialization, work setting (freelance vs. in-house), project demands, and personal preferences.

Here are some considerations regarding work-life balance for translators:

  • Freelance vs. In-House: Freelance translators often have more flexible work schedules, allowing them to tailor their hours to their personal lives. However, freelancers may experience periods of high workload and irregular hours due to project deadlines. In-house translators working for companies or agencies might have more structured schedules but generally less control over their work hours.
  • Project Deadlines: The nature of translation work often involves meeting deadlines, especially in industries where timely communication is crucial. This can lead to periods of intense work, requiring focused effort to complete projects on time.
  • Remote Work: Many translators work remotely, which can contribute to a better work-life balance by eliminating commute times and allowing you to set up your work environment according to your preferences.
  • Part-Time vs. Full-Time: Some translators choose to work part-time to balance their professional and personal lives. This can allow for more time for other activities and responsibilities.
  • Flexibility: Translators, especially freelancers, often have the flexibility to choose the projects they take on and the clients they work with. This can help you align your work with your personal priorities.

Ultimately, the work-life balance of a translator is influenced by individual choices, professional circumstances, and the effort put into managing workload and personal life effectively.

What’s the Career Outlook for Translators?

When exploring how to become a certified translator, it’s important to consider the career outlook and salary expectations.

Fortunately, the career outlook for translators is promising. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, translator and interpreter jobs are expected to grow 20% over the next decade—significantly higher than the average national growth of 5%.

The demand for skilled translators continues to grow as businesses and organizations seek to communicate effectively with diverse audiences.

Translator Popular Career Specialties

What are the Job Opportunities of a Translator?

Translators have many job opportunities across various industries and sectors due to the increasing need for effective communication in a globalized world.

Here are some of the job opportunities available to translators:

  • Freelance Translator: Many translators work as freelancers, offering their services to clients on a project-by-project basis. This approach provides flexibility in choosing projects and setting your own work hours.
  • Translation Agency: Translation agencies hire translators to work on various projects for clients in different industries. Agencies may offer consistent work and access to a diverse range of projects.
  • In-House Translator: Some companies hire in-house translators to handle their internal and external communication needs. In-house translators may work in various industries, including technology, healthcare, legal, and more.
  • Localization Specialist: Localization involves adapting content to specific cultural and linguistic contexts. Localization specialists ensure that websites, software, and other content resonate with the target audience.
  • Subtitler/Captioner: Translators can work on subtitling and captioning projects for movies, TV shows, online videos, and other multimedia content.
  • Technical Translator: Technical translators specialize in translating technical documents, manuals, and specifications for industries such as engineering, IT, and manufacturing.
  • Medical/Legal Translator: Translators with expertise in medical or legal terminology are needed to translate documents for the medical, pharmaceutical, and legal fields.
  • Literary Translator: Literary translators translate novels, poems, and other literary works, preserving the author’s style and voice while making the content accessible to a different audience.
  • Conference Interpreter: Conference interpreters provide real-time interpretation at conferences, meetings, and events, helping participants communicate across language barriers.
  • Audiovisual Translator: Audiovisual translators work on dubbing, voice-over, and script adaptation for movies, TV shows, commercials, and other multimedia content.
  • Education and Training: Some translators work as educators, teaching translation techniques, language studies, and related subjects at universities or language schools.
  • Content Creation: Translators can create original content in the target language, such as blog posts, articles, and marketing materials.
  • Proofreading/Editing: Translators with strong language skills can work as proofreaders or editors, ensuring the accuracy and quality of translated content.
  • Language Technology Specialist: Some translators specialize in working with translation software, developing tools, and managing terminology databases.

Translators can find job opportunities in traditional fields as well as emerging sectors driven by globalization and technology.

What Type of Companies Hire a Translator?

A wide variety of companies and organizations hire translators to facilitate effective communication across different languages and cultures.

Here are some types of companies and sectors that commonly hire translators:

  • Translation Agencies: Specialized translation agencies focus on providing translation services for clients in various industries. These agencies often employ a team of translators with expertise in different languages and subject areas.
  • Technology Companies: Technology firms often require translation services to localize software, websites, user manuals, and technical documentation for global audiences.
  • Medical and Pharmaceutical Companies: Healthcare and pharmaceutical companies need translators to translate medical documents, research papers, clinical trial documents, and patient information.
  • Legal Firms: Legal translation is crucial for translating contracts, court documents, legal briefs, and other legal materials accurately and in compliance with legal terminology.
  • Multinational Corporations: Large corporations with a global presence require translators for internal communication, marketing materials, employee training, and more.
  • Publishing Houses: Publishers hire literary translators to translate novels, poetry, non-fiction, and other written works for publication in different languages.
  • Marketing and Advertising Agencies: These agencies hire translators to adapt advertising campaigns, marketing materials, and product descriptions to resonate with local markets.
  • International Organizations: Translators are employed by international organizations like the United Nations, the European Union, and the World Health Organization to facilitate communication on a global scale.
  • Education Institutions: Universities and language schools may employ translators as educators, teaching translation techniques and language studies.
  • E-commerce Platforms: Online retailers expand their reach by translating product listings, customer reviews, and website content for different language markets.
  • Entertainment Industry: Film studios, television networks, and streaming platforms hire translators for subtitling, dubbing, and adapting content for global audiences.
  • Travel and Tourism Industry: Companies in this sector translate websites, brochures, and promotional materials to attract tourists from different countries.
  • Nonprofit Organizations: NGOs and nonprofits may need translation services for fundraising campaigns, reports, and communication with international partners.
  • Government Agencies: Government bodies require translation for official documents, international relations, and communication with non-English-speaking communities.
  • Financial Institutions: Banks, investment firms, and insurance companies use translation services for financial reports, legal documents, and client communications.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of companies and organizations that hire translators. As globalization continues to shape business and communication, the demand for skilled translators across various sectors remains strong.

Should I become a Translator?

Becoming a translator is ideal for problem solvers with a love of language and culture. While the starting salary is lower than the national average, this in-demand career offers the potential for growth and flexibility to shape your own path.

Take some time to explore educational opportunities and salary expectations to determine if becoming a certified translator is right for you.

Careers Related to Translator


About the Author

Read more articles by Nikita Ross