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How to Become a Speech-Language Pathologist

By Andrea Delgado


If you’re intrigued by the field of communication disorders and have ever wondered how to become a speech therapist, this guide is your compass to navigating the path. Delving into the multifaceted world of speech-language pathology, we’ll uncover the essential steps required to embark on this rewarding career journey. From the ins and outs of obtaining a speech-language pathologist degree to unraveling the intricacies of the job description and delving into the question of how much speech therapists make, this article is your comprehensive roadmap to becoming a proficient and compassionate speech-language pathologist.

Career Summary

How Much do Speech-Language Pathologist Make?

Speech-Language Pathologist Salary

The income of speech-language pathologists can differ due to various factors.

Here’s a basic overview of the salary spectrum for speech-language pathologists at different stages, using data from

  • Entry Salary (US$86k)
  • Median Salary (US$103k)
  • Executive Salary (US$124k)

It’s noteworthy that the average salary of speech-language pathologists in the United States surpasses the national average income for all occupations, which stood at around $61,900 in May 2022.

Speech-Language Pathologist Job Description

Speech-language pathologists, also known as speech therapists, are essential in improving communication and swallowing skills for various age groups. They diagnose and treat speech and language disorders through personalized therapy plans. The profession offers intrinsic rewards, as speech-language pathologists profoundly impact lives by fostering effective communication and restoring confidence.

Speech-Language Pathologist Career Progression

The career progression for a Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) is both fulfilling and diverse, offering opportunities for growth and specialization.

As you embark on your journey in this field, your path may evolve as follows:

  • Entry-Level Practitioner: As a newly certified SLP, you’ll likely start your career as an entry-level practitioner. In this role, you’ll gain valuable hands-on experience working with a variety of clients, diagnosing and treating speech, language, voice, and swallowing disorders.
  • Clinical Expertise: With experience, you’ll refine your clinical skills and develop expertise in specific areas of speech-language pathology. This may include specializing in pediatric speech disorders, voice therapy, fluency disorders, or adult neurogenic communication disorders.
  • Supervision and Mentorship: As you progress in your career, you may have the opportunity to take on supervisory or mentoring roles, providing less experienced SLPs with valuable insights and support to help them grow in their careers.
  • Advanced Practice and Leadership: As you accumulate experience and expertise, you might step into more advanced roles, such as a clinical coordinator, department head, or director of a speech therapy program.
  • Teaching and Academia: For those with a passion for education, transitioning into teaching roles at universities or colleges may be a natural progression. Advocacy and Leadership in Professional Organizations: Throughout your career, you may choose to become involved in professional organizations related to speech-language pathology.
Speech-Language Pathologist Career Progression


  • Improving Lives
  • Meaningful Connections
  • Diverse Work Settings
  • Constant Learning and Problem-Solving
  • Holistic Approach


  • Emotional Toll
  • High Caseloads
  • Administrative Tasks
  • Challenging Behaviors
  • Limited Resources

Valuable Skills to Have as a Speech-Language Pathologist

  • Effective Communication
  • Active Listening
  • Empathy and Patience
  • Diagnostic Skills
  • Therapeutic Techniques

Popular Speech-Language Pathologist Specialties

  • Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology
  • Adult Speech-Language Pathology
  • Voice Therapy
  • Fluency Disorders
  • Accent Modification

How to Become a Speech-Language Pathologist

Speech-Language Pathologist 5 Steps to Career


Start by completing a bachelor’s degree in communication sciences and disorders or a related field. While a specific bachelor’s degree is not always required, having a solid foundation in relevant coursework is essential. Maintain a strong GPA and participate in related extracurricular activities.

Do I need a degree to become a Speech-Language Pathologist?

Yes, to become a licensed and certified Speech Language Pathologist (SLP), you typically need to have a relevant degree. The most common educational path involves earning a Master’s degree in Speech-Language Pathology from an accredited program. This degree provides the necessary coursework and clinical training to prepare you for a career as an SLP.

While a Bachelor’s degree is a starting point, it usually does not qualify you to practice as a licensed SLP. The Master’s degree is the standard requirement to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to diagnose and treat communication and swallowing disorders effectively.

Apply and enroll in a Master’s program accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (CAA). During this program, you’ll complete coursework and clinical practicum, and gain hands-on experience working with clients under supervision.

How long does it take and how much does it cost to get a degree in Speech-Language Pathology?

The duration and cost of obtaining a degree in Speech-Language Pathology can vary depending on several factors, including the type of degree pursued, the educational institution, and whether you attend full-time or part-time.

Here’s a general overview:

  • Bachelor’s Degree: A bachelor’s degree in communication sciences and disorders or a related field typically takes around 4 years of full-time study. The cost of a bachelor’s degree can vary widely based on factors such as whether you attend a public or private institution, your residency status, and any financial aid you receive.
  • Master’s Degree: The most common path to becoming a licensed SLP is to earn a Master’s degree in Speech-Language Pathology. A master’s program typically takes 2 years of full-time study to complete. The cost can vary significantly based on the same factors mentioned earlier, including the institution you attend and available financial aid. The cost of tuition and fees for a master’s degree in Speech-Language Pathology can range from approximately $20,000 to $80,000 or more for the entire program.
  • Doctoral Degree (Ph.D. or Au.D.): Some individuals may choose to pursue a doctoral degree in Speech-Language Pathology, which can take an additional 3 to 5 years of study beyond the master’s degree. Doctoral programs are often research-focused and can lead to advanced clinical and academic roles. The cost of doctoral programs can vary widely as well.

Can I complete an online degree program in Speech-Language Pathology?

Yes, it is possible to complete an online degree program in Speech-Language Pathology, but there are important considerations and limitations to be aware of.

Some institutions offer online bachelor’s degree programs in communication sciences and disorders or related fields. These programs typically cover foundational coursework and may have limited clinical components. However, keep in mind that a bachelor’s degree alone may not qualify you to become a licensed Speech-Language Pathologist. A master’s degree is generally required for professional practice in this field.

Online master’s degree programs in Speech-Language Pathology are available from certain universities. These programs often combine online coursework with in-person clinical experiences. It’s crucial to ensure that the online program is accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation (CAA) to meet licensure and certification requirements.

Clinical experiences and supervised hands-on training are essential components of becoming a qualified SLP. Some online programs may require you to complete clinical practicum hours at approved sites, which could be arranged in your local area. Check with the program to understand how clinical experiences are integrated.

Thoroughly research and compare different online programs to ensure they align with your career goals, offer the necessary clinical experiences, and provide the support you need for successful learning.

Keep in mind that while online programs offer convenience, the field of speech-language pathology involves practical skills and hands-on interactions with clients. Be prepared to actively seek out and participate in clinical experiences to gain the practical knowledge required for licensure and certification.

What are some web resources to learn skills to become a Speech-Language Pathologist?

There are several reputable online resources that can help you learn skills and gain knowledge to become a Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP). These resources offer a range of educational materials, courses, and tools to support your learning journey.

Here are some options:

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA): ASHA’s website provides a wealth of information, including articles, resources, and professional development opportunities for current and aspiring SLPs. You can access research, guidelines, and updates related to the field.
  • This platform offers online courses, webinars, and resources for SLPs and students. You can find a variety of topics, from assessment techniques to treatment strategies, and earn continuing education units (CEUs) to maintain your licensure.
  • Speech Therapy Activities and Materials from Teachers Pay Teachers: Teachers Pay Teachers offers a collection of speech therapy materials, activities, and resources created by SLPs for SLPs. These materials can help you develop therapy plans and engage clients.
  • National Center for Voice and Speech (NCVS): NCVS provides resources related to voice and speech, including research articles, exercises, and tools for voice assessment and therapy.
  • Pearson Clinical: Pearson Clinical offers assessments and resources for speech-language assessment and intervention. Their website provides information about various assessment tools and intervention strategies.

Speech-Language Pathology 101 

This introductory lecture serves as a comprehensive “crash course” in speech-language pathology, providing valuable insights into the profession’s broader scope beyond speech correction, covering four common treatment areas.

Learn More

Practical Experience

Practical experience is crucial for an aspiring SLP because it bridges the gap between theoretical knowledge and real-world application. Through hands-on experience, you will develop essential clinical skills, refine diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, and gain the competence needed to effectively address diverse communication and swallowing needs across patient populations.

Most graduate programs in speech-language pathology require students to complete a supervised clinical practicum, wherein they work directly with clients in on-campus clinics or affiliated off-campus sites. Other common avenues include:


Students often engage in internships during their graduate program, working in settings like schools, hospitals, or private clinics to gain hands-on experience under the guidance of licensed SLPs. To find internship opportunities, consider reaching out to universities with speech-language pathology programs, local clinics, hospitals, schools, and professional organizations like the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Networking, attending conferences, and checking job boards can also help you.


Some programs offer externship opportunities, allowing students to work in specialized settings or with specific populations, such as those in medical settings or specialized rehabilitation centers.

Clinical Fellowships

After obtaining your master’s degree, you’ll need to complete a clinical fellowship, which is a period of supervised professional practice. The CF typically lasts about nine months and involves providing direct services to clients while being supervised by a licensed and experienced SLP.

Essential Skills You Will Learn as a Speech-Language Pathologist

As a Speech Language Pathologist (SLP), having a versatile toolkit of skills is vital for making a real impact on your clients and delivering effective care.

Here’s a rundown of important skills that can enhance your success in this field:

  • Effective Communication: Being able to communicate clearly and compassionately is the cornerstone of speech-language pathology. Your ability to convey information to clients, families, and fellow healthcare professionals in a way that’s both understandable and empathetic is key.
  • Active Listening: Actively tuning in to your clients helps you grasp their needs, concerns, and progress. This skill lets you tailor your strategies and offer personalized support.
  • Empathy and Patience: Collaborating with individuals dealing with communication challenges demands patience and empathy. Creating a nurturing and understanding atmosphere allows clients to learn and grow at their own pace.
  • Diagnostic Skills: Nailing down and diagnosing different communication disorders is a must. A strong knack for diagnostics forms the foundation for crafting customized treatment plans.
  • Therapeutic Techniques: Being skilled in a range of therapeutic techniques – think articulation therapy, language interventions, and alternative communication methods – boosts your ability to tackle a wide spectrum of communication issues.
  • Observational Skills: Sharp observation helps you catch even the smallest shifts in clients’ behavior, communication, or progress. This keen eye allows you to adjust your approach as needed.
  • Adaptability: Since every client is a unique puzzle, the ability to flex your methods to fit their distinct needs is key to achieving positive outcomes.
  • Problem-Solving: Your knack for thinking creatively helps you devise innovative fixes to challenges that might crop up during therapy or in everyday situations.
  • Cultural Competence: Sensitivity to diverse cultural backgrounds is essential for effectively assisting a wide array of clients. Respecting their beliefs and values paves the way for successful collaborations.
  • Collaboration: Teaming up with other professionals like educators, doctors, and occupational therapists fosters a well-rounded approach to client care and amplifies treatment success.
  • Technological Proficiency: Being comfortable with technology, from communication devices to software, streamlines therapy sessions and empowers clients to enhance their communication skills.
  • Time Management: Balancing multiple clients, administrative tasks, and documentation calls for top-notch time management skills to ensure your therapy remains efficient and impactful.
  • Research and Lifelong Learning: Staying abreast of the latest research and continuously seeking ways to develop professionally ensures that you’re delivering top-tier care.
  • Compassion and Advocacy: Treating your clients and their families with compassion while standing up for their needs fosters a holistic and patient-centered therapy approach.

By honing these skills, you’ll be well-prepared to shine as a Speech-Language Pathologist, offering comprehensive and caring support to individuals striving to enhance their communication and overall quality of life.

Licensure and Certification

Gaining the required licenses and certifications is a crucial step toward becoming a practicing speech-language pathologist (SLP). To begin, you’ll need to secure state licensure, a process that entails satisfying the particular criteria established by your state’s licensing board. This often involves completing a master’s degree in speech-language pathology, gaining supervised clinical experience, and possibly passing a state-specific exam.

Furthermore, you have the option to pursue certification through the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). This prestigious recognition involves successfully completing the Praxis examination in Speech-Language Pathology, a comprehensive test assessing your knowledge and skills in the field. Alongside exam success, meeting specific eligibility prerequisites set by ASHA is also a prerequisite for certification.

Ultimately, obtaining both state licensure and ASHA certification solidifies your professional competence and ensures you meet the standards required to provide quality care as a certified speech-language pathologist.

Professional Development and Continuing Education

After becoming licensed and certified, your journey as an SLP continues with ongoing professional development. Stay updated with the latest research, techniques, and advancements in the field through workshops, conferences, and additional certifications. This helps you provide the best possible care to your clients and ensures your ongoing competence as a practitioner.

What’s the Career Outlook for Speech Language Pathologists?

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the field of speech-language pathology is anticipated to experience a 21 percent expansion in employment between 2021 and 2031, surpassing the average growth rate for all job sectors. On average, approximately 14,000 job opportunities for speech-language pathologists are predicted to emerge annually over the course of the next decade.

Speech-Language Pathologist Popular Career Specialties

What are the Job Opportunities and What Type of Companies Hire Speech-Language Pathologists?

Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs) have a wide range of job opportunities across various settings, allowing them to work with diverse populations and address different communication and swallowing disorders.

Here are some common job opportunities for SLPs:

  • Schools: SLPs in schools work with students who have speech and language disorders, helping them improve their communication skills and succeed academically. They collaborate with teachers, develop Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), and provide therapy services.
  • Hospitals and Medical Centers: In medical settings, SLPs work with patients recovering from conditions like strokes, traumatic brain injuries, and surgeries that affect communication and swallowing. They assess and treat patients to help them regain their communication abilities.
  • Rehabilitation Centers: SLPs in rehabilitation centers provide therapy to individuals undergoing recovery from various injuries, surgeries, or medical conditions that impact their speech, language, or swallowing.
  • Nursing Facilities: SLPs in these facilities work with elderly patients who may have communication or swallowing disorders, often related to age-related conditions.
  • Home Health Care: Some SLPs provide services to clients in their own homes, particularly those who have difficulty accessing traditional clinical settings.
  • Early Intervention Programs: SLPs in early intervention programs work with infants and toddlers who have developmental delays or communication disorders, helping them develop crucial communication skills from a young age.
  • Corporate or Professional Communication Training: SLPs can offer communication and presentation training to professionals in various industries to enhance their communication skills.
  • Accent Modification Programs: SLPs can specialize in helping individuals modify their accents to improve communication clarity in a new language.
  • Private Practice or Clinic: Some SLPs choose to establish their own private practices or work in private clinics. This offers them the flexibility to specialize in specific areas and work directly with clients.
  • Telepractice: With advances in technology, SLPs can provide therapy remotely through telepractice, offering their services to clients who may not have easy access to in-person care.
  • Universities and Research Institutions: SLPs may work in universities, conducting research, teaching, and mentoring future SLPs. They contribute to advancing the field through research and education.
  • Assistive Technology Companies: SLPs can work with companies that develop communication devices and software, helping individuals with communication disabilities access technology for effective communication.
  • Nonprofit Organizations: Nonprofits often provide speech and language services to underserved populations or those with limited access to healthcare resources.
  • Government Agencies: SLPs may work in government agencies that provide services to individuals with communication disorders, such as early intervention programs or special education departments.

The variety of job opportunities allows SLPs to choose a path that aligns with their interests, expertise, and desired population. It’s important to research and explore different settings to find the one that best suits your career goals and passion for helping individuals improve their communication abilities.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Speech-Language Pathologist?

The work-life balance of a Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) can vary based on several factors, including the specific work setting, caseload, individual preferences, and the demand for services. SLPs working in schools often follow the academic calendar, enjoying breaks during holidays and summers. In medical or clinical settings, SLPs may have more standardized work hours. SLPs who own or work in private practices may have more control over their schedules, allowing for a better work-life balance.

Many SLPs have the option to work part-time or on a flexible schedule. The size of an SLP’s caseload and the demand for services in their area can impact their work-life balance. A heavier caseload might require more hours, while a lower caseload could offer more flexibility.

With the rise of telepractice, some SLPs have the option to work remotely. Some SLPs pursue opportunities for professional growth, such as becoming supervisors, educators, or researchers. Like any healthcare profession, SLPs should be mindful of managing burnout and maintaining self-care practices to ensure a healthy work-life balance.

It’s important to note that work-life balance can vary greatly among individual SLPs based on their priorities, commitments, and personal circumstances. Choosing the right work setting, negotiating flexible hours, and prioritizing self-care are strategies that SLPs can use to achieve a satisfying balance between their professional and personal lives.

Should I Become a Speech-Language Pathologist?

Deciding whether to become a Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) is a personal and important choice that requires careful consideration of your interests, strengths, and career goals. If you have a genuine interest in communication, language, and helping individuals overcome speech and language challenges, a career as an SLP could be a fulfilling choice. SLPs work closely with clients who may be struggling with communication or swallowing disorders. Empathy, patience, and the ability to connect with people on a personal level are crucial qualities for success in this field.

The field of speech-language pathology is dynamic and evolving. SLPs often engage in continuous learning to stay current with research, technologies, and best practices. If the idea of making a positive impact on people’s lives, fostering growth and empowerment, and facilitating communication resonates with you, a career as an SLP may bring you personal satisfaction. It’s important to conduct thorough research, talk to practicing SLPs, and possibly even shadow or observe professionals in the field to gain a better understanding of the day-to-day responsibilities and challenges. Ultimately, the decision should align with your values, strengths, and aspirations.

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Andrea Delgado

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