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How to Become a Software Developer

By Nikita Ross


Every piece of computer technology used in our daily lives, from apps to home assistants, has been touched by a software developer. Software developers play a pivotal role in shaping our modern technology, developing new innovations, and ensuring existing programs are running smoothly. In this article, we’ll explore what a software developer does and how to get started and grow in this promising field.

Career Summary

Software Developer Salary

Software Developer Salary

The salary of a software developer is influenced by factors such as experience, education, geographical location, technology specialization, company size, and industry demand.

However, here is the most likely range:

  • Entry Salary (US$85k)
  • Median Salary (US$106k)
  • Executive Salary (US$170k)

Software developers truly rake in significantly higher salaries compared to the average earnings across the US!

What does a Software Developer do?

A software developer designs, creates, tests, and maintains software applications and systems. They use programming languages, tools, and methodologies to translate user needs or business requirements into functional software solutions.

Due to the prevalence of technology across industries, this versatile role can look different from organization to organization.

Software Developer Career Progression

The career progression for a software developer isn’t linear. The versatile nature of this field promotes lateral moves and the freedom to change course at any time.

A potential career progression for a software developer might look like this:

  • Entry-Level Software Developer: Responsible for writing code, working on small projects, collaborating with senior developers, learning best practices, and building foundational skills.
  • Mid-Level Software Developer: Responsible for taking on larger projects, working more independently, contributing to system design, gaining expertise in specific technologies, mentoring junior developers, and expanding technical skills.
  • Senior Software Developer: Responsible for leading development efforts, designing complex systems, making architectural decisions, mentoring junior team members, contributing to code reviews, and taking ownership of projects.
  • Lead Developer / Team Lead: Responsible for leading a team of developers, managing project timelines, collaborating with stakeholders, setting technical direction, providing technical guidance, and ensuring code quality.
  • Engineering Manager / Development Manager: Responsible for overseeing multiple development teams, managing resources, setting department goals, coordinating with other departments, contributing to high-level technical decisions, and focusing on team development and productivity.
  • Director of Engineering / Head of Development: Responsible for leading a larger engineering organization, setting strategic goals, managing budgets, contributing to company-wide technical strategy, ensuring cross-team collaboration, and overseeing project portfolios.
  • Chief Information Officer (CIO): Responsible for managing all aspects of technology and information systems within the organization, aligning technology with business goals, ensuring data security, overseeing IT operations and driving technology-driven business transformation.
Software Developer Career Progression


  • High salary.
  • Growing field with plenty of opportunities.
  • Remote and flexible work.
  • Employment and self-employment options.
  • Ability to work autonomously and with teams.
  • Intersection of technology and creativity.


  • Highly competitive field.
  • Busy periods.
  • Often high stakes.
  • Takes time to become established and grow.
  • Need for continuous development and learning.
  • Sometimes difficult to unplug and maintain balance.

Useful Skills to Have as a Software Developer

  • Problem-Solving
  • Affinity for Technology
  • Time Management
  • Organization
  • Communication
  • Analytical Mindset

Popular Software Developer Specialties

  • Full-Stack Developer
  • Front-End Developer
  • Back-End Developer
  • Mobile App Developer (iOS/Android)
  • Web Developer

How to become a Software Developer

Software Developer 5 Steps to Career

Software Developer Education Requirements

Navigating the world of software development begins with understanding its foundational educational prerequisites. Before diving deep into the specifics, let’s first establish a broad overview of the academic landscape that shapes this dynamic profession.

Do I need a Degree to Become a Software Developer?

Surprisingly, you don’t necessarily need a formal degree to become a software developer. 

While having a degree in computer science or a related field can provide a solid foundation and open up certain opportunities, many successful software developers have gained their skills through self-study, coding boot camps, online courses, and practical experience.

Getting a bachelor’s degree in Computer Science is the most common and recognized path if you pursue formal education.

However, several types of degrees can be beneficial:

  • Bachelor’s in Computer Science: This degree covers a wide range of computer science topics, from programming and algorithms to databases and software engineering.
  • Bachelor’s in Software Engineering: This degree focuses more specifically on the process of designing and developing software systems.
  • Bachelor’s in Information Technology: While more focused on IT management and infrastructure, this degree can still provide a foundation in programming and software development.
  • Bachelor’s in Computer Engineering: This degree combines aspects of computer science with electrical engineering, giving you knowledge in hardware as well as software.

What are the Benefits of Getting a Degree in Computer Science or a Related Field?

Getting a degree in computer science or a related field can offer several benefits for becoming a software developer:

  • Strong Foundation: A formal education provides a comprehensive understanding of computer science fundamentals, algorithms, data structures, and programming languages. This knowledge can help you tackle complex problems and develop efficient solutions.
  • Theoretical Knowledge: A degree program often includes theoretical concepts that might not be covered in self-taught or boot camp approaches. This understanding can be valuable when working on cutting-edge technologies and developing innovative solutions.
  • Employment Opportunities: Some larger companies and more specialized roles require a degree as a minimum qualification. A degree can help you qualify for positions with stricter educational requirements.
  • Networking: College can provide opportunities to connect with professors, classmates, and industry professionals. Building a network can lead to internships, job opportunities, and collaborations.
  • Research and Advanced Roles: If you’re interested in pursuing research, academia, or highly specialized roles in fields like artificial intelligence, machine learning, or cryptography, a formal education can provide the necessary background.

Ultimately, the choice of degree depends on your career goals, personal preferences, and the level of depth you want in your education. It’s worth researching the curriculum and opportunities provided by different programs to determine which one aligns best with your aspirations.

Can I Become a Software Developer through Online Education?

Yes, you can become a software developer through online education. Online education has become an increasingly popular and effective way to learn programming and software development skills.

Many reputable platforms offer courses, tutorials, and resources to help you acquire the knowledge and skills needed to become a software developer.

Here are some steps you can take:

  • Choose a Learning Platform
  • Select Relevant Courses
  • Practice Coding
  • Build a Portfolio
  • Engage in Networking and Collaboration
  • Stay Updated on the Latest Industry Trends

It’s important to note that success in online education, like any form of education, depends on your dedication, self-discipline, and commitment to learning and practicing.

While a formal degree can provide a strong foundation, many self-taught developers have successfully entered the industry through online education and practical experience. Choose reputable platforms and courses and put in the effort to learn and improve your skills.

8 Web Resources to Develop and Advance as a Software Developer

Offers interactive coding lessons on various programming languages and technologies.

  • freeCodeCamp: A nonprofit organization that offers a comprehensive curriculum covering HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and various web development technologies.
  • W3Schools: Offers tutorials and references for web development technologies such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and more.
  • MDN Web Docs: Mozilla’s resource for web developers, offering comprehensive documentation and tutorials for web technologies.
  • The Odin Project: A free curriculum for learning web development, including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and more.
  • GitHub: A platform for version control and collaborative coding. It’s also a hub for open-source projects, where you can contribute and learn from other developers.
  • Stack Overflow: A popular community where you can ask and answer programming-related questions. It’s a valuable resource for troubleshooting and learning from others.
  • LeetCode: Focuses on coding challenges that prepare you for technical interviews, especially if you’re interested in landing a software development job.

Practical Experience

Although education provides an essential foundation in software development, practical experience remains paramount in this field. Often, an individual’s proven ability to execute and solve real-world problems holds significant weight alongside academic credentials.

You can gain practical experience by undertaking internships, contributing to open-source projects, building personal projects, and actively participating in coding challenges or hackathons.

What are Internship Opportunities for a Software Developer?

Internship opportunities for software developers are valuable experiences that allow you to gain practical, real-world skills in a professional setting.

Here are some types of internship opportunities you might come across as a software developer:

  • Summer Internships: These are typically short-term internships during the summer months when many companies offer internship programs. They usually last a few months and provide intensive learning experiences.
  • Co-op Programs: Co-op (cooperative education) programs are longer-term internships that often alternate between working and studying semesters. They provide deeper involvement in projects and a more immersive experience.
  • Part-time Internships: Some companies offer part-time internships that allow you to work on projects while attending classes. These can be an excellent way to gain experience during the school year.
  • Remote Internships: With the rise of remote work, many companies offer remote internships that allow you to work from home or a location of your choice. This approach can be especially beneficial if you’re unable to relocate.
  • Paid vs. Unpaid Internships: While paid internships are more common and provide financial support, some companies offer unpaid internships that might still provide valuable learning experiences and help you build your portfolio.
  • Startups and Tech Companies: Both established tech companies and startups often offer internship opportunities. Startups might provide more hands-on experience and exposure to various aspects of the business.
  • Large Corporations: Many large corporations have structured internship programs that include mentorship, training, and exposure to different departments within the company.
  • Research Internships: If you’re interested in the academic side of software development, research internships at universities or research institutions might be an option. These can provide exposure to cutting-edge technologies and research projects.

Explore job boards, company websites, university career services, and networking events to find internship opportunities. Applying early and tailoring your applications to each company’s needs can increase your chances of securing an internship.

Remember that internships are not just about what you can learn; they also offer companies a chance to identify potential future hires, so approach them with enthusiasm and a willingness to contribute.

Essential Software Developer Skills

Diving into the realm of software development, certain skills emerge as crucial cornerstones for success in the industry.

Let’s explore some essential skills you will learn as a software developer:

  • Programming Languages: Proficiency in one or more programming languages, such as Python, Java, JavaScript, C++, C#, Ruby, Swift, Go, or others, depending on your area of focus.
  • Problem-Solving: The ability to analyze complex problems, break them down into manageable components, and devise effective solutions.
  • Algorithms and Data Structures: Understanding fundamental data structures (arrays, lists, trees, graphs) and algorithms (sorting, searching, dynamic programming, etc.).
  • Web Development: Building web applications using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and frameworks like React, Angular, Vue.js, or back-end technologies like Node.js, Django, Ruby on Rails, etc.
  • Version Control: Using tools like Git to manage code repositories, collaborate with other developers, and track changes.
  • Database Management: Working with databases, understanding SQL, and using database management systems (e.g., MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB).
  • Software Architecture: Knowledge of software design patterns, system architecture, and the ability to create scalable and maintainable code.
  • API Integration: Understanding how to use and create APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) for integrating with external services.
  • Testing and Debugging: Writing unit tests, conducting debugging, and ensuring software quality.
  • Development Environments: Familiarity with IDEs (Integrated Development Environments) and text editors to streamline coding.
  • Command-Line Usage: Proficiency in using command-line interfaces for tasks like file manipulation, package management, and more.
  • Security: Awareness of security best practices and techniques to protect applications from vulnerabilities.
  • Networking: Understanding networking concepts, HTTP, TCP/IP, DNS, and how web applications communicate.
  • Agile Methodologies: Familiarity with Agile development processes, including Scrum and Kanban, for efficient project management.
  • Communication Skills: The ability to collaborate with team members, communicate technical concepts effectively, and work on cross-functional projects.
  • Problem Debugging: The skill to identify, isolate, and fix bugs in software applications.
  • Soft Skills: Time management, critical thinking, adaptability, teamwork, and the ability to handle feedback and learn from it.

The specific skills you focus on will depend on the type of software development you’re interested in (web development, mobile app development, data science, machine learning, etc.) and the technologies used in your chosen field.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Software Developer?

The work-life balance of a software developer can vary based on several factors, including the company culture, the specific role, the project deadlines, and the individual’s personal preferences.

Here are some key aspects that can influence a software developer’s work-life balance:

  • Company Culture: Some tech companies prioritize work-life balance and create an environment that values employees’ well-being. Others may have more demanding schedules or a “startup culture” that can lead to longer working hours.
  • Project Deadlines: During critical project phases, such as before a product launch or a major release, software developers might need to put in extra hours to meet deadlines. However, this intensity should ideally be balanced by more relaxed periods.
  • Flexibility: Many software development roles offer flexibility, including remote work, flexible hours, or compressed work weeks. This flexibility can contribute to a better work-life balance.
  • Type of Software Development: The type of software being developed can influence work-life balance. For example, working on critical systems that require constant monitoring might lead to more demanding schedules.
  • Seniority and Responsibility: More senior developers might have more control over their schedules and be less tied to immediate project demands. They might also be involved in mentoring junior developers.
  • Personal Preferences: Individual preferences vary. Some developers might be comfortable with occasional intense work periods, while others might prioritize a consistent work schedule.
  • Self-Care: It’s essential to set boundaries, take breaks, and prioritize self-care to maintain a healthy work-life balance.

What’s the Career Outlook for Software Developers?

While many software developers enjoy a balanced work-life arrangement, it’s essential to research the company culture and expectations during the interview process to find an environment that aligns with your lifestyle and career goals.The career outlook for software developers is incredibly promising as technology continues to become more prevalent in our daily lives.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, software developer jobs are expected to grow 25% over the next decade, much higher than the national average of 5%.

Software Developer Popular Career Specialties

What are the Job Opportunities for a Software Developer?

Software developers have a wide range of job opportunities available to them, spanning various industries and specializations.

The demand for skilled software developers is consistently high, making it a versatile and rewarding career path.

Here are some job opportunities you can pursue as a software developer:

  • Web Developer: Create and maintain websites, web applications, and user interfaces using programming languages like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and frameworks like React, Angular, or Vue.js.
  • Mobile App Developer: Develop mobile applications for iOS (using Swift) or Android (using Java or Kotlin), creating user-friendly and responsive experiences.
  • Front-End Developer: Specialize in creating the user interface and user experience, making applications visually appealing and interactive.
  • Back-End Developer: Focus on server-side logic, databases, APIs, and infrastructure to ensure the functionality of web and mobile applications.
  • Full-Stack Developer: Work on both the front-end and back-end of applications, having a broad range of skills in various technologies.
  • DevOps Engineer: Focus on automating and streamlining the software development, deployment, and monitoring processes, ensuring efficient and reliable operations.
  • Software Engineer: Develop software solutions for various industries, including finance, healthcare, gaming, e-commerce, and more.
  • Embedded Systems Developer: Create software for embedded devices, such as IoT devices, robotics, and automotive systems.
  • Game Developer: Develop video games, including programming, graphics, and gameplay mechanics.
  • Machine Learning Engineer: Build machine learning models and algorithms, working on AI-related projects, natural language processing, computer vision, and more.
  • AI Developer: Specialize in developing artificial intelligence solutions, including chatbots, recommendation systems, and AI-driven applications.
  • Cloud Developer: Design and build applications that leverage cloud platforms such as AWS, Azure, or Google Cloud for scalability and reliability.
  • Quality Assurance (QA) Engineer: Test and ensure software quality, identifying and fixing bugs and ensuring a smooth user experience.
  • Research Scientist: Work in research-focused roles, advancing the field of computer science and technology, often in academia or tech research institutions.
  • Technical Consultant: Provide expert guidance and solutions to clients, helping them implement and optimize software solutions for their specific needs.

These job opportunities highlight the versatility of a software developer’s skills, and there are many more specialized roles and industries you can explore based on your interests and expertise.

The continuous growth of the tech industry ensures that software developers will have a wide array of opportunities for years to come.

What Types of Companies Hire Software Developers?

Software developers are in high demand across various industries, as virtually every sector relies on technology to some extent.

Companies of all sizes, from startups to large corporations, hire software developers to create, maintain, and improve their software systems.

Here are some types of companies that commonly hire software developers:

  • Technology Companies: These companies specialize in developing software products, services, and solutions. Examples include:
    • Software development companies
    • IT consulting firms
    • Cloud service providers (e.g., Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud)
  • E-commerce Companies: Online retailers need software developers to build and maintain their e-commerce platforms, manage inventory, handle payments, and optimize user experiences.
  • Finance and Fintech: Financial institutions, banks, investment firms, and fintech startups hire software developers to build trading platforms, banking systems, payment gateways, and risk management tools.
  • Healthcare and Healthtech: Companies in the healthcare industry need software developers to create electronic health record systems, medical imaging software, telemedicine platforms, and health-related mobile apps.
  • Gaming and Entertainment: Game development studios, media companies, and entertainment platforms hire software developers to create video games, multimedia applications, streaming platforms, and virtual reality experiences.
  • Aerospace and Defense: These industries require software developers for developing flight control systems, satellite communication software, simulation software, and cybersecurity solutions.
  • Automotive and Transportation: Companies in this sector need software developers for developing autonomous driving software, vehicle infotainment systems, GPS navigation, and logistics software.
  • Telecommunications: Telecommunication companies hire software developers to build and maintain network infrastructure, develop communication software, and create IoT solutions.
  • Government and Public Sector: Government agencies and public sector organizations hire software developers to create public services software, manage databases, and implement digital transformation initiatives.
  • Research and Development: Companies engaged in research and innovation, including pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and technology research, often hire software developers for data analysis, simulations, and research software development.
  • Education and Edtech: Educational institutions and Edtech startups hire software developers to build e-learning platforms, educational apps, and software solutions for classroom management.

Software developers are needed in many other industries and sectors. The diversity of job opportunities reflects the ubiquity of software in modern society and the constant need for skilled professionals to create, improve, and maintain software systems.

Should I Become a Software Developer

The software developer career path is great for people who enjoy working with technology, solving problems, and want job flexibility. This promising career path pays well above the national average and continues to grow each year.

If you’re interested in becoming a software developer, explore the free resources listed here and choose the educational path that suits your goals.

Careers Related to Software Developer


About the Author

Read more articles by Nikita Ross