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How to Become a Social Worker

By Alyciah Beavers


Embarking on the social worker career path is a transformative journey that intertwines compassion, advocacy, and resilience. At the intersection of empathy and action, social workers serve as beacons of support in individuals’ darkest moments, fostering positive change in communities and individual lives. In this article, we’ll walk you through the essential steps to kickstart your career as a social worker, covering everything from education to hands-on advice for diving into this rewarding and influential profession.

Career Summary

Social Worker Salary

Social Worker Salary

A social worker’s salary can fluctuate significantly depending on factors like geographic location, educational background, years in the field, specialty area, and employer.

However, here is the most likely range:

  • Entry Salary (US$46k)
  • Median Salary (US$58k)
  • Executive Salary (US$81k)

The annual mean wage for all occupations is $61,900. Therefore, the median salary of a social worker is slightly lower than the national average for all occupations.

Social Worker Job Description

A social worker provides support and assistance to individuals and families facing challenges, ranging from emotional and mental health struggles to financial and social issues. They collaborate with various agencies, advocate for their clients’ rights, and connect them with resources and interventions to improve their well-being and overall life circumstances.

Social Worker Career Progression

  • Entry-Level Social Worker / Junior Social Worker: You assist in conducting assessments, creating care plans, and providing support to individuals and families in need.
  • Case Manager: They work closely with clients to assess their needs, develop individualized care plans, and connect them with appropriate services and resources.
  • Supervisor / Team Leader: Team leaders oversee a group of social workers by providing guidance, support, and direction to their team members.
  • Program Coordinator / Manager: Program coordinators plan, implement, and evaluate program activities, manage staff, and ensure that program goals are achieved effectively.
  • Director of Social Services: These are responsible for managing and coordinating social work programs within an organization. They aim to develop strategic plans, allocate resources, collaborate with other departments, and ensure services align with the organization’s mission.
  • Executive Director / Chief Social Work Officer: The highest-ranking social work provides leadership, vision, and strategic direction for an entire social service agency or department.


  • Social workers have the opportunity to directly improve the lives of individuals, families, and communities.
  • It is an opportunity to create meaningful relationships and build strong connections with their clients.
  • It is a chance to advocate for those who may not have a voice and empower individuals to access resources, services, and opportunities they might not access alone.
  • It offers you a chance to have the flexibility to work in a variety of settings, including schools, hospitals, government agencies, and non-profit organizations.


  • Social workers constantly deal with clients facing incredibly challenging and distressing situations, such as abuse and addiction. Witnessing and empathizing with their pain and struggles takes an emotional toll on them, leading to burnout.
  • It has a high workload with paperwork, administrative tasks, and a never-ending stream of client needs.
  • There are limited resources in that social workers might work within organizations or agencies.
  • There are unpredictable working environments that lead to a lack of stability and a sense of unpredictability in their work environment.

Useful Social Worker Skills

  • Active Listening
  • Empathy
  • Great Communication Skills
  • Cultural Competence
  • Problem-Solving Skills

Popular Social Work Specialties

  • Clinical Social Work
  • Child and Family Social Work
  • Criminal Justice Social Work
  • International Social Work
  • Hospice and Palliative Care Social Work

How to Become a Social Worker

Social Worker 5 Steps to Career

Becoming a social worker means diving deep into understanding people and aiming to make a positive difference. Just as artists shape clay, future social workers shape lives with care and empathy. The steps to this career are rooted in education and hands-on experience, all driven by a commitment to helping others. Let’s explore these steps, each one building towards a kinder and more understanding society.


Do I need a Degree to Become a Social Worker?

Yes, all states require potential candidates looking for social work licensure to hold a bachelor’s degree in social work, a master’s, or both. However, the requirements vary from state to state. Therefore, find a state guide to determine what other conditions you need before getting into this career.

Here’s a general overview:

  • Bachelor’s Degree in Social Work (BSW): Many entry-level positions in social work, particularly in non-clinical roles, may require a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) degree. A BSW program provides a foundational understanding of social work principles and practices.
  • Master’s Degree in Social Work (MSW): For more advanced and specialized roles, such as clinical social work or positions in healthcare settings, a Master of Social Work (MSW) degree is often required. An MSW program delves deeper into social work theory, research, and practice. It’s a common requirement for obtaining a clinical license and for more responsible roles.
  • Doctoral Degree (Ph.D. or DSW): Some social workers pursue a doctoral degree in social work (Ph.D. or Doctor of Social Work, DSW) to engage in research, teaching, policy development, or advanced clinical practice. A doctoral degree is not typically required for most social work positions, but it can open doors to leadership and academia.

Why Is It Important To Get A Degree In Social Work?

If you’re looking to become a social worker, obtaining a degree in Social Work is crucial.

Here is why:

  • It offers professional competence such that you will have a strong foundation in the field’s theories, practices, and ethical standards. This equips you with the necessary skills to work effectively with individuals, families, groups, and communities facing various social challenges.
  • Social work involves dealing with sensitive and complex situations. Formal education in social work helps you develop a deep understanding of ethical considerations and professional boundaries. This knowledge is essential to ensure the well-being and dignity of your clients.
  • The program offers clinical social work, child welfare, healthcare, mental health, and more specializations. These specializations allow you to focus on specific areas of interest and develop expertise in addressing particular social issues.
  • In many states, practicing as a social worker requires a degree and subsequent licensure or certification. This legal requirement ensures that individuals working in the field meet specific educational and ethical standards, providing trust and accountability to clients and the community.
  • While some entry-level positions in social work might be available to individuals without a degree, having a formal education significantly enhances your social worker career path. Many advanced positions, including supervisory and management, typically require a degree.

How Long Does It Take To Get A Degree In Social Work?

The time it takes to earn a degree in social work can vary based on several factors, including the level of degree you’re pursuing and whether you’re studying full-time or part-time.

Here are the general time frames for different types of social work degrees:

  • Bachelor’s Degree in Social Work (BSW): A BSW takes around four years to complete if pursued full-time. This includes completing general education requirements, core social work courses, and fieldwork or internships.
  • Master’s Degree in Social Work (MSW): An MSW usually takes around two years to complete if pursued full-time. Some programs offer advanced standing options for students who already hold a BSW, which can shorten the duration to around one year. MSW programs include more specialized coursework and often require significant supervised fieldwork.
  • Doctoral Degree in Social Work (DSW or Ph.D.): A Doctoral degree in social work can take 3 to 5 years or more to complete, depending on the specific program and the student’s pace. These programs involve extensive research and coursework and often require the completion of a dissertation or other significant research project.

How Much Does It Cost To Study Social Work At University?

The cost of studying social work at a university can vary widely depending on several factors, including the state you’re studying in, whether you’re an international student or a domestic student, the specific university you choose, and the level of education you’re pursuing such as undergraduate or graduate.

In the United States, for example, the undergraduate fee for social work programs is $9,757 for in-state students and $26,358 for out-of-state students. On the other hand, the tuition and fees for a social work master’s program are $13,800 in public universities, whereas private universities charge $36,300.

You might get discounts and fellowships from the National Association of Social Work and other organizations. On top of tuition, you’ll also need to consider the cost of textbooks, supplies, housing, and other living expenses.

It’s important to research specific universities and programs to get accurate and up-to-date information on tuition and other associated costs. Many universities provide this information on their websites or through their admissions offices.

Can I Become A Social Worker Through Online Education?

Yes, it is possible to become a social worker through online education. Still, the specific requirements and regulations may vary depending on your location and the institution offering the online program. Social work is a field that often requires a combination of academic coursework, supervised fieldwork, and licensing or certification.

What Are Some Web Resources To Learn Skills To Become A Social Worker?

There are several web resources to learn skills to become a social worker. These resources offer courses, articles, videos, and other materials that cover various aspects of social work practice, theory, and ethics.

Here are some reputable web resources to consider:

  • Social Work Helper: It is an online community and resource hub for social workers with articles, news, and information.
  • National Association of Social Workers (NASW): The NASW website provides resources, publications, and webinars on various social work topics. They also have a continuing education section for professionals looking to enhance their skills.
  • Social Work Today: An online magazine that features articles, news, and insights about the social work profession, including best practices, case studies, and career advice.
  • The New Social Worker Online: This website features articles, blogs, and resources specifically targeted towards social work students and professionals.
  • Social Work Podcast: Offers a series of podcast episodes on various social work topics, including interviews with experts, case discussions, and practical advice.
  • Clinical Social Work Association (CSWA): It focuses on clinical social work and provides resources for those in the field.
  • Council on Social Work Education (CSWE): The site provides information on accredited social work programs and student resources.

Social Worker 101 – Basic Training for Helping Professionals 

This course offers essential insights and concise knowledge for entry-level professionals in support positions within the social work field, equipping them with fundamental concepts crucial for effective collaboration and performance in their roles.

Learn More

Practical Experience

Practical experience as a social worker offers a profound and enriching journey of positively impacting individuals and communities. Engaging in direct client interactions, collaborating with fellow professionals, and liaising with organizations exemplify a social worker’s multifaceted responsibilities. Through these experiences, social workers witness the resilience of the human spirit and play a pivotal role in empowering individuals to overcome adversity and fostering lasting change.

What Are Internship Opportunities For A Social Worker?

Internship opportunities for social workers span various sectors, each reflecting the diverse roles these professionals can take on in their careers.

For those inclined towards the healthcare sector, clinical social work internships provide hands-on experience in hospitals, clinics, or mental health centers, offering therapy, counseling, and support to individuals grappling with mental health, substance abuse, or medical issues. Similarly, medical social work internships, also within healthcare, hone the skills needed to guide patients and families through the multifaceted challenges posed by medical conditions.

The realm of child welfare is another avenue, where interns typically ally with child protective services, foster care, or adoption agencies. Here, they get a firsthand look at ensuring the safety and well-being of children by assisting caseworkers in home visits and assessments. Similarly, school social work internships allow budding social workers to immerse themselves in educational settings, collaborating with students, teachers, and parents to navigate academic and behavioral challenges.

Community development internships pivot towards community-focused initiatives, like combating poverty or homelessness. Interns in this sector collaborate with nonprofits, government agencies, or community centers to foster change. Then there’s the criminal justice system, where internships might place social workers within correctional facilities or probation offices, emphasizing the rehabilitation and reintegration of individuals post-incarceration.

For those looking at care for the elderly, geriatric social work internships present a foray into settings like nursing homes or hospice organizations, concentrating on counseling, resources, and end-of-life care. Meanwhile, advocacy and policy internships beckon those passionate about systemic change, placing them in the heart of social justice organizations or government agencies, where they engage in research, policy analysis, and community outreach.

Lastly, the world stage is open to interns through international social work opportunities with NGOs, humanitarian bodies, or development agencies, addressing global challenges in poverty, health, and social justice.

What Skills Will I Learn As A Social Worker?

As a social worker, you will acquire diverse skills to effectively assist individuals, families, and communities in addressing various social and emotional challenges. These skills are essential for providing support, advocating for change, and improving the well-being of your clients.

Here are some of the critical skills you can expect to learn as a social worker:

  • Communication Skills: Effective communication is at the heart of the social worker career path. You’ll learn how to actively listen, ask probing questions, convey information clearly, and build rapport and understanding with your clients.
  • Empathy and Compassion: Developing the ability to understand and share the feelings of others is crucial. You’ll learn to approach your clients with genuine kindness and compassion, helping them feel understood and valued.
  • Assessment and Problem-Solving: Social workers are trained to assess their clients’ needs, strengths, and challenges. You’ll learn how to analyze complex situations, identify problems, and develop strategies for addressing them.
  • Crisis Intervention: Social workers often deal with individuals facing domestic violence, substance abuse, homelessness, or mental health emergencies. You’ll learn how to respond effectively in high-stress situations and provide immediate support.
  • Case Management: Organizing and coordinating client resources is a significant aspect of social work. You’ll learn how to develop and implement comprehensive case management plans to meet your client’s needs.
  • Advocacy Skills: Social workers advocate for the rights and well-being of their clients. You’ll learn how to navigate systems and institutions to secure necessary services, benefits, and support and to raise awareness about social issues.
  • Cultural Competence: In a diverse society, it’s essential to understand and respect different cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds. You’ll learn to work effectively with people from various cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Boundary Setting: Maintaining professional boundaries is crucial to ensure ethical practice. You’ll learn how to establish appropriate limits while supporting clients.
  • Documentation and Record Keeping: Social workers must maintain accurate and detailed records of their interactions with clients. You’ll learn how to document information in a way that supports ethical and practical practice.
  • Collaboration: Social workers often work as part of multidisciplinary teams. You’ll learn how to collaborate with colleagues, other professionals, and community organizations to provide comprehensive care to clients.
  • Conflict Resolution: Social work involves navigating conflicts and disagreements that may arise among clients, families, or within the community. You’ll develop skills to mediate and resolve disputes constructively.
  • Ethical Decision-Making: Social workers adhere to a strict code of ethics. You’ll learn how to make ethical decisions and navigate complex situations while upholding the highest standards of professional conduct.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Social Worker?

The work-life balance of a social worker can vary depending on several factors, including the specific job role, work environment, client caseload, and personal preferences.

Social workers can work in diverse settings, each with its demands on work-life balance. For example, those working in hospitals might have more demanding schedules due to the nature of healthcare, while those in non-profit organizations might have more regular hours. Also, social work often involves responding to emergencies and crises, which might require social workers to be on-call or work irregular hours. Balancing these unexpected demands with personal time can be challenging.

Social work can be emotionally demanding due to the nature of the issues and challenges clients face. This emotional toll can sometimes spill over into personal life, requiring self-care and boundary-setting strategies. However, many social work organizations and agencies recognize the importance of work-life balance for their employees. They might offer resources, support, and policies to promote well-being and prevent burnout.

What’s the Career Outlook for Social Workers?

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the social worker job outlook will grow to 9% between 2021 and 2031. This rate is much faster than for other occupations. Around 74,700 job openings will be within the same duration to replace retired people or those switching careers.

Social Worker Popular Career Specialties

What are the Job Opportunities for a Social Worker?

Social workers have diverse job opportunities, reflecting the wide range of services they provide and the populations they serve.

Here are some of the primary job roles and settings available to social workers:

  • Clinical Social Worker: Often employed in healthcare settings, these professionals diagnose and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. They provide individual, group, or family therapy and devise intervention strategies.
  • Child Welfare Case Worker: Working primarily with child protective services, foster care, or adoption agencies, they ensure the safety and well-being of children. They assess family situations, conduct home visits, and can play roles in adoption or foster care placements.
  • School Social Worker: Based in educational settings, they assist students with academic, behavioral, and social challenges. Collaborating with teachers, parents, and school administrators, they often provide counseling and devise strategies to enhance a student’s school experience.
  • Medical Social Worker: Found in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, they support patients and families navigating medical challenges. They connect patients with resources, provide counseling, and help with discharge planning.
  • Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Worker: Working in rehabilitation centers, hospitals, or outpatient clinics, these social workers support individuals battling substance abuse, addiction, or mental health issues.
  • Geriatric Social Worker: Concentrating on the elderly, they work in settings like nursing homes, community senior centers, and assisted living facilities. They address issues like end-of-life planning, healthcare management, and guardianship.
  • Hospice Social Worker: Working with terminally ill patients and their families, they provide emotional support, counseling, and resources to help navigate end-of-life decisions.
  • Criminal Justice and Corrections Social Worker: Based in correctional facilities, probation and parole agencies, or courts, they aid in rehabilitation, parole planning, and reentry into society after incarceration.
  • Policy Analyst and Advocate: In governmental or non-governmental organizations, they research and promote policies that create systemic change. They may also lobby for laws and regulations that support vulnerable populations.
  • Community Outreach Coordinator: Often associated with non-profits or community organizations, they develop and implement programs aimed at community betterment, such as combating homelessness or promoting mental health awareness.
  • International Social Worker: Working with global agencies, NGOs, or humanitarian organizations, they address international challenges related to poverty, health crises, human rights, and social justice.

This list is not exhaustive, as the field of social work is ever-evolving, with emerging needs creating new roles and opportunities. Social workers have the flexibility to shift between these areas throughout their careers, based on interests and expertise.

What Type of Companies Hire a Social Worker?

Various companies and organizations hire social workers in multiple industries, as their skills are valuable for addressing the social, emotional, and psychological needs of individuals, families, and communities.

Some types of companies that commonly hire social workers include:

  • Healthcare Facilities: Hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and rehabilitation centers often employ social workers to help patients and their families cope with medical conditions, navigate healthcare systems, and access necessary support services.
  • Mental Health Centers: Mental health clinics, psychiatric hospitals, and counseling centers hire social workers to provide therapy, counseling, and support to individuals with mental health issues.
  • Schools and Educational Institutions: Schools often have social workers to assist students, parents, and teachers address academic, social, and emotional challenges.
  • Nonprofit Organizations: Many nonprofits focus on social issues such as poverty, homelessness, domestic violence, and child welfare. Social workers are crucial in providing services and advocacy to vulnerable populations.
  • Government Agencies: Social workers are employed by various local, state, and federal government agencies. They work in child protective services, adult protective services, public health departments, and correctional facilities.
  • Child and Family Services: Agencies that focus on child welfare, adoption, foster care, and family support often hire social workers to assess and assist families in crisis.
  • Substance Abuse and Addiction Treatment Centers: Social workers are vital in helping individuals and families affected by substance abuse or addiction access treatment, support, and recovery services.
  • Elderly Care and Hospice: Social workers provide emotional support and guidance to the elderly and their families in settings such as assisted living facilities and hospice care.
  • Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs): Many companies have EAPs to support employees facing personal or work-related challenges. Social workers can provide counseling and referral services through these programs.
  • Criminal Justice System: Social workers work within the criminal justice system to support individuals in probation, parole, and correctional settings, as well as to help reintegrate former inmates into society.
  • International and Humanitarian Organizations: Social workers can find opportunities in organizations focusing on international development, refugee resettlement, and humanitarian aid.
  • Research and Policy Organizations: Social workers contribute to research, policy analysis, and advocacy on social issues, helping to shape policies and programs that address societal challenges.

Should I Become a Social Worker?

The decision to become a social worker is deeply personal. It can be an advantageous and impactful career choice if you’re passionate about helping others, have the necessary social worker skills, and are prepared for the role’s challenges.

Speaking with practicing social workers, educators, or career advisors is also a good idea to gain more insights into the profession and help you make an informed decision. There is always a lot to learn about this field but look at your long-term goals to see if this career aligns with what you want in the future.

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Alyciah Beavers

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