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How to Become a Nuclear Engineer

By Ibrahim Okunade


If you’ve ever been intrigued by the intricate world of nuclear science or fascinated by the potential of clean energy, becoming a nuclear engineer might be the ideal career for you. This article is a comprehensive guide that will illuminate the path to becoming a nuclear engineer.

Career Summary

Nuclear Engineer Salary

Nuclear Engineer Salary

How well can you live off your nuclear engineer salary? Your answer is right here. While your salary will invariably depend on multiple factors, the career offers substantial remuneration. According to Glassdoor, the salary breakdown for nuclear engineers is as follows:

  • Entry Salary (US$80k)
  • Median Salary (US$100k)
  • Executive Salary (US$125k)

Compared to the national average income in the United States, which is US$61,900, nuclear engineers earn significantly more than the average worker.

What do Nuclear Engineers do?

“What do nuclear engineers do?” is a common question asked about this profession. A nuclear engineer designs, operates, and maintains nuclear systems and technology, including nuclear reactors, to generate power, conduct research, or address various applications. They ensure safety, efficiency, and compliance with regulations while working on tasks such as reactor design, radiation protection, and nuclear materials management.

Nuclear Engineer Career Progression

  • Entry-Level Nuclear Engineer: Entry-level nuclear engineers often start as nuclear engineering associates or junior engineers. They assist senior engineers, conduct data analysis, and assist with routine tasks related to reactor operations or research.
  • Nuclear Engineer: After gaining experience, nuclear engineers can advance to more complex engineering roles. They may become nuclear reactor engineers, radiation protection engineers, or health physicists, focusing on specific aspects of nuclear technology.
  • Senior Nuclear Engineer: Senior nuclear engineers take on more responsibility and may lead projects, conduct safety assessments, and mentor junior staff. They often have expertise in a particular area of nuclear engineering.
  • Director or Senior Leadership: In larger organizations or after years of experience, nuclear engineers can progress to director-level positions or senior leadership roles. They may have responsibilities for multiple departments, strategic planning, and decision-making at the executive level.
Nuclear Engineer Career Progression


  • Nuclear engineers contribute to eco-friendly power generation through nuclear technology.
  • They apply nuclear engineering knowledge to advance medical treatments and equipment, particularly radiation therapy.
  • Nuclear engineers are well-compensated for their expertise.
  • There are diverse career paths for nuclear engineers in industries such as defense and medicine.
  • They participate in emergency response efforts to minimize the impact of rare nuclear incidents and protect communities.


  • While nuclear incidents are rare, when they occur, they can have severe consequences and require immediate and high-stakes response efforts.
  • The field requires extensive formal education to stand a chance.
  • The nature of the work can lead to high-stress situations, particularly during emergencies or when dealing with critical issues in nuclear facilities.
  • The demand for nuclear engineers isn’t as high as it used to be.

Useful Skills to Have as a Nuclear Engineer

  • Knowledge of physics, engineering, and technology.
  • Attention to detail.
  • Design skills.
  • Verbal communication skills.
  • Analytical thinking.
  • Thorough understanding of computer systems and applications.
  • Regulatory knowledge.
  • Project management skills.

Popular Specialties in Nuclear Engineering

  • Nuclear Reactor Engineering
  • Radiation Protection and Health Physics
  • Radiological Engineering
  • Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering
  • Fusion Engineering
  • Nuclear Waste Management

How to become a Nuclear Engineer

Nuclear Engineer 4 Steps to Career

Step 1: Complete Your Education

To get a job as a nuclear engineer, you need a minimum of a bachelor’s degree. Thus, after completing high school, you should head on to enroll in a reputable undergraduate program in nuclear engineering or a closely related field. It’s crucial to choose a program that is accredited by a recognized accrediting body like the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in the United States. During your undergraduate studies, focus on building a strong foundation in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and engineering principles, as these subjects are fundamental to understanding nuclear engineering concepts.

Although a bachelor’s degree in nuclear engineering may get you some entry-level roles, you may need a master’s degree to have a better chance of getting your foot in the door for more advanced positions and career opportunities in the field. A master’s degree in nuclear engineering can provide you with specialized knowledge and skills that are highly valued by employers, especially in roles involving nuclear reactor design, radiation safety, and nuclear materials. Additionally, pursuing a master’s degree can open doors to research positions and leadership roles within the nuclear engineering industry.

How Long Does it Take to Get a Nuclear Engineering Degree?

It takes four years to complete a bachelor’s degree in nuclear engineering. Some universities offer dual bachelor’s/master’s degree programs, which allow students to earn both degrees in five years. A master’s degree in nuclear engineering typically takes two years to complete, and a Ph.D. degree in nuclear engineering typically takes six years to complete.

However, it is important to note that not all nuclear engineering jobs require a master’s degree. Some entry-level jobs may only require a bachelor’s degree. However, many employers prefer to hire nuclear engineers with a master’s degree, especially for more advanced positions.

Therefore, the total amount of time it takes to get a nuclear engineering degree will depend on your career goals. If you are interested in an entry-level job, you may be able to get a job with a bachelor’s degree. However, if you are interested in a more advanced position, you may want to consider getting a master’s degree or even a Ph.D. degree.

How Much Does it Cost to Get a Nuclear Engineering Degree?

The cost of getting a degree in nuclear engineering varies depending on a number of factors, including the type of school you attend, whether you are a resident or non-resident student and the cost of living in the area where the school is located.

According to College Tuition Compare, the average tuition and fees for a bachelor’s degree in nuclear engineering are $12,017 for state residents and $34,784 for out-of-state students. The average tuition and fees for a master’s degree in nuclear engineering are $14,860 for state residents and $33,153 for out-of-state students.

However, these are just averages. The actual cost of your degree may be higher or lower depending on the factors mentioned above. For example, if you attend a private university, you can expect to pay more in tuition than if you attend a public university. And if you are a non-resident student, you will likely have to pay additional tuition fees.

In addition to tuition and fees, you will also need to budget for other expenses, such as books, supplies, room and board, and transportation. The cost of these expenses will vary depending on your lifestyle and the cost of living in the area where you attend school.

If you are concerned about the cost of getting a degree in nuclear engineering, there are a number of things you can do to reduce the cost. For example, you can apply for scholarships and grants. You can also look for part-time jobs or internships to help offset the cost of your education.

Can I Become a Nuclear Engineer Through Online Education?

Becoming a nuclear engineer through online education can be challenging, but it is possible to pursue certain aspects of nuclear engineering through online programs.

However, there are some important considerations to keep in mind:

  • Bachelor’s Degrees in Nuclear Engineering: While there are online programs that offer engineering degrees, including nuclear engineering, completing a full Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Nuclear Engineering online can be rare. Engineering programs typically require hands-on laboratory work and practical experience, which can be challenging to replicate in an online environment. Some universities may offer hybrid programs where you can take some courses online, but you may still need to attend in-person labs or gain practical experience in a physical setting.
  • Master’s Degrees and Certificates: Online master’s degree programs in nuclear engineering or related fields may be more readily available than online bachelor’s programs. These programs often target working professionals who already have a bachelor’s degree and want to further their education or specialize in nuclear engineering. Online master’s programs may include coursework and research components that can be completed remotely, but they may also require occasional on-campus visits or participation in practical experiences.

What are Some Web Resources to Augment Your Learning as a Nuclear Engineer?

As a nuclear engineer or someone aspiring to become one, you can enhance your learning and stay updated with industry developments by using various web resources.

Here are some valuable web resources for nuclear engineering:

  • American Nuclear Society (ANS): ANS is a professional organization dedicated to advancing nuclear science and technology. Their website offers a wealth of resources, including publications, webinars, conference information, and news related to nuclear engineering and technology.
  • Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI): NEI represents the U.S. nuclear energy industry. Their website provides information on policy, safety, and technology related to nuclear power.
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): The IAEA is an international organization focused on promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Their website offers a wide range of publications, reports, and educational resources related to nuclear technology and safety.
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC): The NRC is the U.S. government agency responsible for regulating nuclear power and ensuring safety. Their website provides information on regulations, licensing, safety assessments, and more.
  • World Nuclear Association: This organization provides information on nuclear energy worldwide. Their website includes publications, news, and educational materials about nuclear power.
  • Nuclear Engineering International (NEI) Magazine: NEI Magazine offers articles, news, and reports on nuclear engineering and technology from a global perspective.

Step 2: Pass the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam

The Fundamentals of Engineering exam, administered by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) in the United States, is the first step toward becoming a licensed professional engineer. It assesses your understanding of fundamental engineering principles and your ability to apply them to real-world engineering problems.

To take the FE exam, you typically need to have completed or be close to completing your bachelor’s degree in engineering or a closely related field. The FE exam is a comprehensive test covering a wide range of engineering topics, including mathematics, ethics, engineering economics, statistics, dynamics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and more.

Step 3: Gain Work Experience

You can gain practical experience by completing internships or entry-level jobs in the nuclear engineering field. This experience will help you develop the skills and knowledge that you need to be successful in your career. During internships, you’ll have the opportunity to work on real-world projects, apply the theories learned in your academic coursework, and become familiar with the day-to-day operations of nuclear facilities or related organizations.

Entry-level positions provide an excellent foundation, allowing you to gradually take on more responsibilities and gain a deeper understanding of the intricacies of nuclear engineering. Moreover, exposure to industry professionals, mentors, and seasoned experts can provide valuable insights, networking opportunities, and guidance as you progress in your nuclear engineering journey. Overall, practical experience is an invaluable component of your education and career development in the nuclear engineering field.

What Are Internship Opportunities for a Nuclear Engineer?

Internship opportunities for nuclear engineers can vary widely depending on your location, the specific industry or organization you are interested in, and your level of education.

Here are some common internship opportunities for nuclear engineers:

  • Nuclear Power Plants: Many nuclear power plants offer internships for students and recent graduates. These internships can provide hands-on experience in reactor operations, maintenance, safety protocols, and radiation protection.
  • Government Agencies: Government organizations such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States offer internships in areas related to nuclear safety, regulations, and policy development.
  • Research Institutions: Universities, national laboratories, and research institutions often provide internships for students interested in nuclear engineering research. These internships may involve working on cutting-edge projects related to nuclear technology, nuclear materials, or reactor design.
  • Nuclear Engineering Firms: Engineering consulting firms specializing in nuclear engineering may offer internships in areas like nuclear plant design, radiation analysis, or nuclear waste management.

What Skills Will I Learn as a Nuclear Engineer?

A nuclear engineer requires a wide range of technical and soft skills. These skills enable them to design, operate, maintain, and ensure the safety of nuclear systems and facilities.

Here are some key skills you can expect to learn as a nuclear engineer:

  • Nuclear Physics: You will gain a deep understanding of nuclear physics principles, including nuclear reactions, decay processes, and the behavior of atomic nuclei.
  • Reactor Physics: Nuclear engineers often work with nuclear reactors. You will learn how to model reactor behavior, understand criticality, and optimize reactor designs.
  • Radiation Protection and Safety Analysis: Managing radiation exposure is critical in nuclear engineering. You’ll acquire skills in designing and implementing safety measures to protect workers and the environment. Also, you’ll be trained in assessing the safety of nuclear facilities, conducting risk assessments, and developing safety protocols to mitigate potential accidents.
  • Nuclear Materials: Understanding the properties and behavior of nuclear materials, such as fuels and structural materials, is crucial for reactor design and maintenance.
  • Thermal Hydraulics: You will learn about the behavior of fluids and heat transfer within nuclear systems, which is vital for reactor cooling and safety analysis.
  • Nuclear Instrumentation and Control: Skills related to measuring and controlling nuclear processes and systems are essential for safe and efficient operation.
  • Mathematics and Modeling: Nuclear engineers use advanced mathematical and computational tools to model and analyze complex nuclear systems.
  • Engineering Design: You will learn how to design nuclear reactors, systems, and components while considering factors like efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness.
  • Data Analysis: Analyzing data from experiments and simulations is a fundamental skill for evaluating nuclear system performance and safety.
  • Teamwork: Collaboration is common in nuclear engineering, whether working on reactor design, safety assessments, or maintenance projects. Teamwork and interpersonal skills are crucial.
  • Project Management: For larger nuclear projects, project management skills are valuable for planning, budgeting, and executing complex engineering tasks.

Step 4: Take Your PE Nuclear Exam

To become eligible for various well-paying roles with increased responsibilities, nuclear engineers often pursue a Professional Engineer (PE) license. This licensure process typically involves taking the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam, commonly referred to as the PE Nuclear exam.

The PE Nuclear exam is a comprehensive assessment that consists of 85 questions and spans approximately 9.5 hours, including a 50-minute break. It covers a range of topics relevant to nuclear engineering, including the nuclear fuel cycle, reactor physics, criticality safety, radiological analysis, and consequences. To prepare for the exam, candidates are advised to thoroughly review the exam content, take practice tests, and familiarize themselves with the scoring process. Additionally, staying informed about current pass rates can provide useful insights into the exam’s level of difficulty.

What’s the Career Outlook for Nuclear Engineers?

The career outlook for nuclear engineers is relatively stable. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment of nuclear engineers is projected to decline 11% over the next decade. Despite the decline, about 700 openings for nuclear engineers are projected each year.

Nuclear Engineer Popular Career Specialties

What are the Job Opportunities of a Nuclear Engineer?

Nuclear engineers can pursue various job opportunities in a range of industries and sectors.

Here are some common job titles and career paths for nuclear engineers:

  • Nuclear Reactor Engineer: These engineers focus on the design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear reactors, ensuring their safe and efficient performance. They may work in nuclear power plants, research facilities, or regulatory agencies.
  • Radiation Protection Engineer: Radiation protection engineers develop and implement safety measures to protect workers, the public, and the environment from exposure to ionizing radiation. They work in various industries, including nuclear power, healthcare, and industrial settings.
  • Nuclear Safety Engineer: Nuclear safety engineers assess and ensure the safety of nuclear facilities, systems, and processes. They may work for regulatory agencies, nuclear power companies, or engineering consulting firms.
  • Nuclear Materials Engineer: These engineers work with nuclear materials, including fuels and structural materials used in reactors. They may be involved in materials testing, development, and quality control.
  • Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineer: Engineers in this role are responsible for managing various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, including mining, enrichment, fuel fabrication, and waste management.
  • Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Engineer: These engineers design and maintain instrumentation and control systems used in nuclear facilities to monitor and manage reactor operations.
  • Nuclear Regulatory Specialist: Regulatory specialists work for government agencies like the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and are responsible for enforcing safety regulations, conducting inspections, and licensing nuclear facilities.
  • Nuclear Waste Management Engineer: These engineers focus on the safe handling, storage, and disposal of nuclear waste materials, ensuring compliance with environmental regulations.
  • Nuclear Consultant: Nuclear engineers may work as consultants, providing expertise and advice to organizations in various industries, including energy, healthcare, and government.

What Type of Organizations Hire Nuclear Engineers?

Nuclear engineers can find employment opportunities in a variety of organizations and sectors due to the broad applications of nuclear technology and expertise.

Here are some types of organizations that commonly hire nuclear engineers:

  • Nuclear Power Plants: Nuclear engineers are employed in nuclear power facilities, where they work on reactor operation, safety, maintenance, and plant design.
  • Government Agencies: Regulatory bodies like the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States and similar agencies in other countries hire nuclear engineers to oversee safety and compliance in the nuclear industry.
  • Research and Development Institutions: Universities, national laboratories, and research institutions employ nuclear engineers for research on advanced reactor designs, nuclear materials, and related technologies.
  • Engineering and Consulting Firms: Engineering consulting companies often have nuclear engineering divisions that provide services to nuclear power plants, government agencies, and other clients.
  • Nuclear Fuel and Technology Companies: Companies involved in nuclear fuel production, enrichment, recycling, and technology development hire nuclear engineers to work on fuel cycle processes and related technologies.
  • Environmental and Waste Management Organizations: Agencies responsible for managing nuclear waste, ensuring environmental compliance, and addressing radioactive contamination hire nuclear engineers.
  • Aerospace and Defense Industry: Some nuclear engineers work in the defense sector, focusing on nuclear propulsion for submarines or spacecraft.
  • Energy Companies: Beyond nuclear power, energy companies may hire nuclear engineers to work on alternative energy sources, such as fusion research or advanced fission reactors.

Tips For Maintaining a Healthy Work-Life Balance as a Nuclear Engineer

Like in many demanding professions, balancing work and life as a nuclear engineer can be challenging. Nuclear engineering often involves safety-related responsibilities, complex projects, and stringent regulations, which can lead to long hours and high stress levels.

  • Prioritize Safety and Compliance: Safety is paramount in nuclear engineering. Ensure that you fully understand safety protocols and regulatory requirements. By maintaining a strong safety culture at work, you can help prevent emergencies and minimize the need for extended hours or overtime.
  • Effective Time Management: Develop strong time management skills to efficiently handle your workload. Use tools such as calendars, task lists, and project management software to stay organized. Prioritize tasks based on importance and deadlines.
  • Set Boundaries: Clearly define your work hours and communicate them to your colleagues and supervisors. Establishing boundaries helps prevent work from encroaching on your personal time.
  • Use Vacation and Paid Time Off: Take advantage of your vacation and paid time off benefits to recharge and spend quality time with family and friends. Avoid hoarding unused leave; use it for relaxation and rejuvenation.
  • Delegate and Collaborate: Don’t hesitate to delegate tasks when appropriate, and collaborate with colleagues to share the workload. Teamwork can help prevent burnout and ensure that work responsibilities are evenly distributed.
  • Maintain Physical and Mental Health: Prioritize your health by getting regular exercise, eating well, and getting adequate sleep. Additionally, consider stress management techniques such as meditation, mindfulness, or hobbies that help you relax.

It’s important to never forget that work-life balance is a personal journey, and what works for one nuclear engineer may not work for another. It’s essential to assess your priorities, communicate your needs with your employer and colleagues, and continually adjust your strategies to maintain a healthy balance between your professional and personal life.

Should I become a Nuclear Engineer?

The opportunity to be a nuclear engineer offers a unique and high-earning career path, but it’s a decision that should be carefully considered based on your interests, skills, and career goals. A nuclear engineering degree is not for the faint of heart; it requires a strong dedication to safety, rigorous technical aptitude, and a passion for nuclear science. The financial rewards can be substantial, with the potential for lucrative salaries, particularly as you gain experience and advance in your career.

However, it’s essential to weigh these potential financial benefits against the demanding nature of the field and the commitment to lifelong learning and safety-conscious practice that it entails. The information provided in this article is a good starting point. If, after reading it, you feel convinced that it is the right career for you, then you should go for it. Good luck!

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Ibrahim Okunade

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