Looking for the perfect job?
Explore our Career Guides!

Read More

How to Become a Medical Laboratory Technician

By Ajoke Aminu


If you are considering a career as a medical laboratory technician, but are not sure if it’s the right choice for you, or even where to start, we’ve got you covered! Our comprehensive guide is your key to unlocking an exciting career in the world of diagnostic healthcare. We’ll cover everything from educational requirements and internship opportunities to career outlook and work-life balance.

Career Summary

Medical Lab Technician Salary

Medical Laboratory Technician Salary

Are you curious about the medical lab technician salary or you want to know what to say when asked for your desired salary? Well, let’s fill you in. According to Glassdoor, the annual median wage for medical lab technicians in the United States is around $53,120.

  • Entry Salary (US$45k)
  • Median Salary (US$55k)
  • Executive Salary (US$66k)

It’s a respectable wage that sits a little below the average national income in America.

What does a Medical Laboratory Technician do?

A Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) performs various laboratory tests and procedures to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They collect and analyze patient specimens, operate laboratory equipment, maintain quality control, and communicate test results to healthcare providers.

Medical Laboratory Technician Career Progression

  • Junior Medical Laboratory Technician: Entry-level position responsible for performing routine laboratory tests and assisting senior technicians.
  • Medical Laboratory Technician: Performs a variety of laboratory tests, operates equipment, analyzes results, and maintains quality control.
  • Laboratory Supervisor/Manager: Manages laboratory operations, oversees staff, ensures regulatory compliance, and contributes to strategic planning and process improvement.
  • Laboratory Director: The highest level of responsibility, overseeing the entire laboratory’s operations, ensuring quality standards, managing budgets, and leading the laboratory team.
Medical Laboratory Technician Career Progression


  • Contributing to patient care and diagnosis.
  • Opportunities for continuous learning and staying updated with advances in laboratory medicine.
  • The potential to work in diverse healthcare settings and specialties.


  • Potential exposure to hazardous materials and infectious specimens.
  • Shift work or on-call responsibilities may be required, impacting work-life balance.
  • Potential repetitive tasks and working in a sedentary environment.

Essential Skills to Have as a Medical Laboratory Technician

  • Attention to detail and accuracy.
  • Strong analytical and problem-solving skills.
  • Proficiency in laboratory techniques and equipment operation.
  • Knowledge of laboratory safety protocols and quality control measures.
  • Effective communication and teamwork skills.

Important Medical Lab Technician Specialties

  • Hematology: Focusing on blood-related tests and disorders.
  • Microbiology: Specializing in the identification and analysis of microorganisms.
  • Clinical Chemistry: Concentrating on chemical analysis of body fluids.
  • Immunology: Specializing in immune system-related tests.
  • Molecular Diagnostics: Utilizing molecular techniques for genetic testing and analysis.

How to become a Medical Laboratory Technician

Medical Laboratory Technician 5 Steps to Career

Let’s delve deeper into the educational requirements, essential experience, and promising career outlook that await aspiring Medical Laboratory Technicians in this comprehensive guide.


Do I Need a Degree to Become a Medical Laboratory Technician?

Becoming a Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) requires at least an associate’s degree in medical laboratory technology or a related field, such as chemistry or biology.  Additionally, community colleges and vocational schools offer MLT programs that typically take about two years to complete. These programs include both classroom instruction and hands-on laboratory training to prepare students for work in the medical laboratory setting.

Having a degree in medical laboratory technology or a related field is typically the most straightforward and widely accepted path to becoming a medical lab technician. Furthermore, it’s important to note that licensure or certification requirements may also apply, depending on the jurisdiction in which you plan to work. These requirements can vary, so it’s essential to research and understand the specific regulations and guidelines in your area.

Why Is It Important to Get a Degree?

  • A degree program provides you with the necessary knowledge and skills to perform the duties of an MLT effectively. You will learn about various laboratory techniques, diagnostic procedures, quality control measures, and laboratory safety protocols. This education equips you with a solid foundation in the field, allowing you to understand the theory behind laboratory tests and perform them accurately.
  • By completing a degree program, you demonstrate to employers that you have acquired the essential competencies required for an MLT role. This includes knowledge of medical terminology, proficiency in laboratory equipment operation, understanding of test methodologies, and the ability to analyze and interpret test results. A degree provides evidence of your competence and increases your employability.
  • Having a degree in MLT can open up more opportunities for career advancement. It can qualify you for specialized positions or allow you to take on leadership roles within the laboratory. With additional experience and education, you may also have the option to pursue higher-level positions, such as laboratory supervisor or laboratory manager.
  • Many employers and professional organizations in the medical laboratory field prioritize candidates with formal education. Obtaining a degree demonstrates your commitment to your profession and adherence to professional standards. It shows that you have undergone a structured educational program, which enhances your credibility and professional standing.
  • In many jurisdictions, a degree in MLT is a prerequisite for obtaining licensure or certification as a medical laboratory technician. Licensure or certification may be required by regulatory bodies to ensure that individuals working in the field meet specific standards of competence and ethical conduct. Having a degree can make the licensure or certification process smoother.

How Long Does It Take to Get a Degree in Medical Technology or a related field?

The length of time it takes to obtain a degree in Medical Technology or a related field can vary depending on the specific program and academic institution.

Here are some common degree options and their approximate durations:

  • Associate’s Degree (Medical Laboratory Technician): An associate’s degree in Medical Laboratory Technology typically takes around 2 years to complete. This program focuses on foundational knowledge and practical skills required to work as a Medical Laboratory Technician.
  • Bachelor’s Degree (Medical Laboratory Science): A bachelor’s degree in Medical Laboratory Science or Medical Technology generally takes 4 years to complete. This comprehensive program delves deeper into laboratory science principles, advanced techniques, and research.
  • Bachelor’s Degree (Biology, Chemistry, or related fields): Some students pursue a bachelor’s degree in fields like Biology, Chemistry, or Biochemistry, which can take 4 years. After completing the degree, they may opt for additional certification or specialized training in Medical Laboratory Science.
  • Master’s Degree (Medical Laboratory Science): For individuals seeking advanced knowledge and leadership roles, a master’s degree in Medical Laboratory Science may take an additional 2 years after completing a bachelor’s degree.

It’s important to note that the duration of a program can be influenced by factors such as the availability of courses, the program’s scheduling options (part-time or full-time), and any prerequisites or general education requirements that need to be fulfilled before starting the MLT program.

What are the Tuition Costs for the Medical Laboratory Technician Program?

The cost of studying the Medical Laboratory Technician program (MLT) at a university can vary significantly depending on several factors, including the country, the specific university, whether it is a public or private institution, and whether you are an in-state or out-of-state student. Additionally, tuition fees can change over time, so it’s essential to consult the specific university’s website or contact their admissions office for the most up-to-date information.

In the United States, for example, the cost of studying MLT at a university can range from $8,000 to $30,000 per year at a community college. Community colleges often offer more affordable options for in-state students, while out-of-state or private universities may have higher tuition rates.

Scholarships, grants, and financial aid opportunities may also be available to help offset the cost of tuition. It’s advisable to explore these options and consult with the university’s financial aid office to determine what financial assistance programs you may qualify for.

Do I Need a Certification to Become a Medical Lab Technician?

While the medical lab technician certification is not mandatory in most states, obtaining an MLT certification can enhance job prospects. Two widely recognized certifications are offered by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) and the American Association of Bioanalysts (AAB).

The ASCP certification requires an associate degree and three years of on-the-job experience or completion of a military lab tech training program. The AAB certification requires an associate degree with relevant coursework or completion of a 50-week military medical lab technician course. Both certifications involve passing an exam that evaluates knowledge in disciplines like hematology, chemistry, microbiology, and immunology. Obtaining certification through either organization demonstrates proficiency in the field and can improve employment opportunities for an aspiring medical lab technician.

Can I Become a Medical Lab Technician through Online Education?

Yes, it is possible to pursue a Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) education through online programs. Online MLT programs provide a flexible and convenient option for individuals who may not have access to traditional on-campus programs or prefer the flexibility of online learning.

Online MLT programs typically include a combination of online coursework, virtual laboratory simulations, and clinical practicum components. The online coursework covers the theoretical aspects of medical laboratory technology, including topics such as clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology, and laboratory procedures. Virtual laboratory simulations aim to provide hands-on experience in a simulated laboratory setting.

However, it’s important to note that MLT programs require practical training and clinical experience to develop the necessary technical skills and competency in a real laboratory environment. Most online MLT programs include a clinical practicum component where students are required to complete a certain number of supervised clinical hours at an approved healthcare facility. This allows students to gain practical experience and apply their knowledge in a hands-on setting.

When considering an online MLT program, it is crucial to ensure that the program is accredited by a recognized accrediting agency for MLT education. Accreditation ensures that the program meets specific standards of quality and prepares students adequately for their future careers.

Additionally, it’s important to consider the licensing or certification requirements in your jurisdiction. Some states or countries may have specific requirements for MLT licensure or certification, and it’s important to ensure that the online program you choose meets those requirements.

Overall, while online MLT programs provide flexibility, it’s essential to carefully research and choose an accredited program that offers the necessary practical components to ensure a well-rounded education and prepare you for a successful career as a Medical Laboratory Technician.

Useful Web Resources for Medical Lab Technicians
  • American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP): The ASCP offers a variety of educational resources, including online courses, webinars, and study materials. They provide learning opportunities on topics related to laboratory science, including MLT-specific content.
  • LabCE: LabCE is an online resource that offers continuing education courses for laboratory professionals. They provide courses covering various MLT topics, including clinical chemistry, microbiology, hematology, and laboratory management. Some courses offer CE (continuing education) credits.
  • Medscape: Medscape is a medical education platform that offers a wide range of articles, case studies, and educational materials related to laboratory medicine. It covers various topics relevant to MLTs and can provide valuable insights into current trends and developments in the field.
  • Lab Tests Online: Lab Tests Online is an educational website that provides detailed information about laboratory tests, their purposes, methodologies, and interpretation of results. It can be a helpful resource to learn about different laboratory tests and their significance in diagnosing and monitoring diseases.
  • Medical Laboratory Observer (MLO) Magazine: MLO is a publication focused on providing information and insights into the medical laboratory industry.

Practical Experience

What are the Internship Opportunities for Medical Laboratory Technicians?

Although there are other ways to obtain professional references, nothing beats the experience that comes with an internship. Internship opportunities for medical lab technicians can be found in various healthcare settings and medical facilities. These internships are essential for gaining hands-on experience and practical skills that complement the theoretical knowledge acquired during formal education. Some common internship opportunities include:

  • Clinical Laboratory Internships: Many hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories offer internships or clinical rotations for MLT students. These internships typically involve working in various laboratory departments, such as hematology, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and immunology. Interns gain practical experience performing laboratory tests, handling specimens, and using laboratory equipment.
  • Research Laboratory Internships: MLTs interested in research or advancing their careers in specialized areas of laboratory science may find internship opportunities in research laboratories or academic institutions. These internships allow MLTs to contribute to ongoing research projects, learn specialized techniques, and gain exposure to the research process in areas such as genetics, molecular biology, or specialized diagnostics.
  • Industry Internships: Some MLT programs or healthcare companies collaborate with industry partners, such as pharmaceutical companies or medical device manufacturers, to offer internships. These internships provide MLTs with exposure to industry-specific laboratory practices, quality control procedures, or research and development activities.
  • Government or Public Health Internships: Government health agencies, public health laboratories, or organizations involved in public health initiatives may offer internships for MLTs. These opportunities can provide exposure to public health testing, surveillance programs, or epidemiological investigations.
  • Reference Laboratory Internships: Reference laboratories, which specialize in specific types of testing or serve as regional or national reference centers, may offer internship opportunities. Interns in these settings can gain exposure to advanced laboratory techniques, rare or specialized testing, and complex case studies.

What Skills Will I Learn as a Medical Lab Technician?

  • Laboratory Techniques: You will learn various laboratory techniques and procedures for handling and analyzing biological specimens, such as blood, urine, tissue samples, and body fluids. This includes skills in specimen collection, centrifugation, microscopy, pipetting, and operating laboratory equipment.
  • Test Performance and Analysis: MLTs learn how to perform a wide range of laboratory tests, including hematological, biochemical, immunological, microbiological, and molecular tests. You will develop skills in following standardized protocols, performing tests accurately, and analyzing and interpreting test results.
  • Quality Control and Assurance: A medical laboratory technician is trained in quality control measures to ensure the accuracy and reliability of laboratory results. This includes skills in monitoring and troubleshooting, laboratory instruments, verifying calibration, running quality control samples, and adhering to quality control protocols.
  • Laboratory Safety: Safety protocols and practices are emphasized throughout MLT education. You will learn how to handle potentially infectious specimens, use personal protective equipment (PPE), follow biohazard protocols, and maintain a safe working environment.
  • Data Management and Recordkeeping: A medical lab technician is responsible for accurately documenting test results, maintaining patient records, and managing laboratory data. You will learn skills in data entry, information management systems, and maintaining confidentiality and privacy of patient information.
  • Communication and Collaboration: MLTs often work as part of a healthcare team, collaborating with other healthcare professionals. Effective communication skills are essential for conveying test results, discussing patient cases, and consulting with physicians or other laboratory staff.
  • Problem-Solving and Critical Thinking: A medical lab technician develops strong problem-solving and critical thinking skills to identify and troubleshoot issues that may arise during laboratory testing. This includes recognizing abnormal test results, troubleshooting technical problems, and ensuring quality control standards are met.
  • Professionalism and Ethical Conduct: A medical laboratory technician program emphasizes professionalism and ethical behavior in laboratory practice. You will learn about ethical guidelines, patient confidentiality, professional responsibility, and maintaining integrity in laboratory procedures.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Medical Laboratory Technician?

The work-life balance of medical lab technicians can vary depending on their job setting, work schedule, and personal preferences.

Here are some important things to consider:

  • Regular Work Hours: Many MLTs work regularly full-time or part-time shifts, which can provide a predictable schedule and better work-life balance. These shifts often follow standard business hours, allowing MLTs to have evenings, weekends, and holidays off.
  • Shift Work: In some healthcare settings, such as hospitals or reference laboratories, medical laboratory technicians may be required to work shifts that cover extended hours or rotate between day, evening, and night shifts. Shift work can impact work-life balance, as it may involve working during non-traditional hours or weekends. However, it can also offer flexibility in scheduling and allow for longer periods of time off.
  • Overtime and On-Call: A medical lab technician may have opportunities for overtime work or on-call shifts, especially in setting with urgent or emergency testing needs. While these opportunities can provide additional income, they may also impact work-life balance by requiring MLTs to be available outside of regular working hours.
  • Work Settings: MLTs can work in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, research laboratories, public health agencies, or industry. Each work setting may have different demands and expectations, influencing work-life balance. For example, MLTs working in research or industry may have more regular schedules, while those in hospital settings may have more shift work.

Ultimately, MLTs can actively manage their work-life balance by setting boundaries, prioritizing personal time, and effectively managing their schedules. This may involve planning activities outside of work, taking advantage of vacation or personal days, and finding ways to unwind and relax during leisure time.

What’s the Career Outlook for Medical Laboratory Technicians?

The field of medical laboratory technicians is expected to experience a steady growth rate of 7% from 2021 to 2031, which is in line with the average growth rate across all occupations. This projected growth reflects the ongoing demand for skilled professionals in laboratory medicine and the vital role they play in healthcare.

Over the span of a decade, an estimated average of 25,600 annual job openings are anticipated for clinical laboratory technologists and technicians. These job opportunities arise from a combination of factors, including the need to replace retiring professionals, expand healthcare facilities, and meet the growing demand for diagnostic testing in various healthcare settings.

The demand for clinical laboratory technologists and technicians stems from their critical contribution to patient care, disease diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prevention. These professionals perform a wide range of laboratory tests, handle specimens, operate sophisticated laboratory equipment, and analyze results to provide accurate and reliable data to healthcare providers.

Medical Laboratory Technician Popular Career Specialties

Career Options for a Medical Laboratory Technician

As a Medical Laboratory Technician, you have a diverse range of job opportunities and popular career options in various healthcare settings.

Some of the most sought-after career paths include:

  • Hematology Technician: Specializing in hematology, technicians analyze blood samples to identify and quantify different blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They may also perform coagulation tests to assess blood clotting.
  • Clinical Chemistry Technician: Clinical chemistry technicians focus on analyzing body fluids, such as blood and urine, to measure chemical components like glucose, cholesterol, electrolytes, and enzymes. These tests help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions.
  • Microbiology Technician: In this specialty, technicians work with cultures and specimens to identify and characterize microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Microbiology technicians play a crucial role in diagnosing infectious diseases.
  • Immunology/Serology Technician: Immunology technicians study the immune system’s responses by analyzing blood samples for specific antibodies, antigens, or immune-related markers. They aid in diagnosing immune system disorders and infectious diseases.
  • Blood Bank/Transfusion Technician: These technicians focus on ensuring the compatibility of blood products for transfusions. They perform blood typing, cross-matching, and antibody screening to provide safe and appropriate blood products to patients.
  • Cytology Technician: Cytology technicians analyze cellular samples, such as those obtained from Pap smears or body fluids, to detect abnormalities and assist in the diagnosis of cancer and other diseases.
  • Histology Technician: Histology technicians prepare tissue samples for microscopic examination by pathologists. They use special staining techniques to highlight cellular structures and aid in diagnosing diseases.
  • Genetics Technician: Genetics technicians are involved in analyzing genetic material like DNA and chromosomes to identify genetic disorders and assist in genetic testing.
  • Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) Technician: POCT technicians work in settings like clinics or emergency departments, where they conduct rapid tests for immediate results, such as glucose monitoring or pregnancy tests.

Who Hires Medical Lab Technicians?

  • Hospitals and Medical Centers: Hospitals employ MLTs in their clinical laboratories to perform a wide range of laboratory tests for patient care, diagnosis, and treatment. MLTs work alongside other healthcare professionals to analyze samples and generate accurate test results.
  • Diagnostic Laboratories: Independent diagnostic laboratories specialize in conducting laboratory tests for healthcare providers. These labs may focus on specific areas such as pathology, genetics, molecular diagnostics, or specialized testing. MLTs play a crucial role in conducting tests and generating accurate results.
  • Physicians’ Offices and Clinics: Medical lab technicians may work in physicians’ offices and outpatient clinics, assisting with sample collection and conducting basic laboratory tests for quick patient diagnosis.
  • Blood Banks and Transfusion Services: Blood banks and transfusion services employ medical lab technicians to handle blood products, perform blood typing and compatibility testing, and ensure the safety of blood transfusions.
  • Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies: Pharmaceutical companies employ MLTs in their quality control and quality assurance departments. MLTs may be involved in testing the quality and safety of pharmaceutical products, ensuring compliance with regulatory guidelines.
  • Public Health Agencies: Public health laboratories, state health departments, or government agencies hire MLTs to support public health initiatives. MLTs contribute to disease surveillance, outbreak investigations, and monitoring of public health trends through accurate and timely laboratory testing.
  • Research and Development Companies: MLTs may work in research and development companies, especially those involved in medical technology, pharmaceuticals, or biotechnology. MLTs contribute to laboratory testing, data analysis, and research projects related to new diagnostic technologies or the development of drugs or medical devices.
  • Academic Institutions: MLTs may find employment in colleges, universities, or allied health institutions as instructors or laboratory coordinators. They teach and train students in MLT programs, share their expertise, and oversee laboratory activities.

Should I become a Medical Laboratory Technician?

So, should you take the plunge and become a Medical Laboratory Technician? That decision depends on a few factors. Is it a good fit for your personal interest and skill set? Does it align with your long-term career goals? And have you thoroughly researched all the key points discussed in this article?

Making an informed decision means considering all of these factors. Remember, this isn’t just a job – it’s a career that could potentially impact countless lives. So, take your time, do your research, and most importantly, trust your gut. You know yourself better than anyone, so go with the decision that feels right for you. Good luck on your path to success!

Careers Related to Medical Laboratory Technician

Ajoke Aminu

About the Author

Read more articles by Ajoke Aminu