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Illegal Interview Questions: What Employers Can’t Ask

By Laura-Ann Burgess


As job seekers encounter a wide range of questions from potential employers and, often, these questions can add a level of unfairness to an already daunting task. While most interview questions focus on assessing an applicant’s qualifications, experience, and suitability for the role, some questions cross the line into prohibited territory.

These illegal interview questions touch upon personal matters that have no bearing on one’s ability to perform the job and can potentially perpetuate discrimination. In this article, we’ll explore the concept of illegal interview questions and shed light on why employers should be cautious about asking them.

We’ll dive into the role of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in preventing discrimination in the hiring process and examine the potential consequences for employers who violate these guidelines.

The Prohibited Territory: Questions That Cross The Line

When it comes to interviewing candidates, employers must be mindful of the questions they ask to ensure fairness and uphold the principles of equal opportunity. While it’s crucial to gather relevant information to make informed hiring decisions, certain questions are considered inappropriate and discriminatory.

Here are some examples of illegal interview questions that employers should avoid:

1. Personal Information

Inquiring about an applicant’s age, marital status, or sexual orientation is strictly off-limits. These questions can be perceived as discriminatory and may lead to biased hiring practices.

2. Family and Childcare

Asking about an applicant’s family planning intentions, childcare arrangements, or pregnancy status is also illegal. Such inquiries can infringe upon an individual’s privacy rights and may unfairly affect women or parents seeking employment.

3. National Origin and Citizenship

Inquiring about an applicant’s country of origin, citizenship status, or immigration status is discriminatory. These questions can lead to the exclusion of qualified candidates based on their national origin or perceived immigration status.

4. Disability and Medical History

Asking questions about an applicant’s disabilities or medical history is prohibited. Employers should refrain from seeking information about an individual’s health conditions, as it can lead to discrimination against qualified candidates with disabilities.

5. Religion and Beliefs

Asking about an applicant’s religious beliefs, places of worship, or practices violates their right to religious freedom. Discrimination based on religion or beliefs is strictly prohibited in the hiring process.

6. Race and Ethnicity

Inquiring about an applicant’s race, ethnicity, or color is not only inappropriate but also illegal. Employers should focus on assessing qualifications and skills rather than making decisions based on a candidate’s racial or ethnic background.

It is important to note that these examples are not exhaustive, and other questions that are similarly discriminatory should be avoided. Employers must be cautious and sensitive to ensure they do not cross the line into prohibited territory during interviews.

Why These Questions Are Illegal: The Role of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

To safeguard against employment discrimination, the EEOC plays a crucial role in enforcing federal laws that protect job applicants and employees from unfair treatment. The EEOC establishes guidelines employers must follow to ensure equal opportunity and fair hiring practices.

When it comes to illegal interview questions, the EEOC focuses on protecting individuals from discrimination based on their race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability, or genetic information.

The EEOC’s guidelines aim to prevent discriminatory practices by emphasizing that an applicant’s qualifications and abilities should be the primary factors in the hiring decision. The commission expects employers to assess candidates based on their merits, rather than personal characteristics that are unrelated to the job.

In instances where an applicant feels they have been subjected to illegal interview questions or other forms of discrimination, they have the right to file a complaint with the EEOC.

The commission investigates such complaints and takes appropriate action against employers who have violated the law. Penalties for employers found guilty of discriminatory practices may include monetary compensation for the affected individual, changes in hiring practices, and even legal action.

By understanding the role of the EEOC and the consequences of violating guidelines on illegal interview questions, employers can ensure a fair and inclusive hiring process that focuses solely on an applicant’s qualifications and suitability for the job.

What to do if You Get Asked Illegal Interview Questions

1. Stay Calm and Composed

Remaining composed during an interview is crucial, even if you encounter an illegal question. Remember that the interviewer may not be aware of the question’s illegality–they may even think of a casual personal question as a way to make small talk and break the ice! Stay focused and maintain a professional demeanor throughout the process.

    • Take a deep breath and pause momentarily before responding to the question.
    • Remind yourself that your primary objective is to showcase your qualifications and suitability for the position.
    • Avoid getting defensive or confrontational, as it may hinder your chances of making a positive impression.

2. Recognize Illegal Interview Questions

Being familiar with common illegal interview questions can help you identify when one is asked. Recognizing these questions allows you to handle them appropriately while still emphasizing your qualifications and expertise.

    • Examples of illegal interview questions include inquiries about your age, race, gender, religion, marital status, disabilities, or any other protected characteristics.
    • Understand that interviewers should base their evaluation on your skills, experience, and qualifications, rather than personal or protected attributes.
    • Be prepared to navigate these questions tactfully, without compromising your rights or professional integrity.

3. Respond Professionally

When faced with an illegal question, it’s crucial to respond professionally while redirecting the conversation back to your qualifications and job-related topics.

    • Acknowledge the question politely and remain composed.
    • Direct the conversation toward your relevant skills, experiences, and accomplishments.
    • Highlight your achievements and explain how they make you a strong candidate for the position.
    • Emphasize your motivation and eagerness to contribute to the company’s success.

4. Pivot to Relevant Topics

Steering the conversation towards relevant and job-related topics allows you to redirect the interviewer’s focus back to your qualifications and the value you can bring to the organization.

    • Shift the discussion to areas that highlight your expertise and align with the job requirements.
    • Seamlessly transition to discussing your past accomplishments or projects that demonstrate your abilities.
    • Use this opportunity to showcase your knowledge of the industry, market trends, or specific skills that make you a valuable asset.

5. Ask for Clarification

If you’re unsure whether a question is illegal or not, it’s acceptable to seek clarification from the interviewer. Asking for additional context or explanation can help you better understand their intentions.

    • Politely ask for clarification on how the question relates to the job or how it contributes to the interview process.
    • Express your willingness to provide any relevant information that pertains to your qualifications for the position.
    • This approach allows you to address the question’s underlying concern without directly answering an illegal inquiry.

6. Dodge the Question

Skillfully navigating around illegal questions while keeping the conversation professional and relevant is an effective strategy to protect your rights and maintain a positive impression.

    • Reframe the question to focus on a job-related aspect that you can address.
    • Provide a general response that addresses the underlying concern without violating your rights or divulging protected information.
    • Shift the conversation back to your qualifications, experiences, and how you can contribute to the organization’s success.

7. Know Your Rights

Understanding your rights as a job candidate is crucial in dealing with illegal interview questions. Familiarize yourself with employment laws and regulations that protect you from discrimination.

    • Research laws specific to your jurisdiction, that prohibit certain types of questions during interviews.
    • Be aware of your rights and ensure you are treated fairly and equitably throughout the hiring process.
    • Knowledge of your rights empowers you to respond appropriately and take necessary action if your rights are violated.

8. Report the Incident

If you feel comfortable and believe it is appropriate, consider reporting the incident to the relevant authority or the company’s HR department.

    • Document the details of the interview, including the date, time, location, and the specific question asked.
    • Provide a factual account of the situation, avoiding any embellishments or personal opinions.
    • Reporting the incident can help raise awareness and prevent future occurrences of illegal interview questions.

9. Seek Legal Advice

If you believe your rights have been violated during an interview, consult with a legal professional to understand your options and potential recourse.

    • Seek advice from an employment lawyer who specializes in discrimination cases.
    • Discuss the situation, provide all relevant details, and inquire about potential legal actions you can take.
    • Legal professionals can guide you through the process and help protect your rights.

10. Practice Interview Scenarios

Preparing for interviews, including potential encounters with illegal questions, can boost your confidence and ability to respond appropriately.

    • Role-play interview scenarios with a friend, mentor, or career coach.
    • Practice formulating professional and assertive responses to illegal questions.
    • Enhance your ability to navigate challenging situations while maintaining a positive and composed demeanor.

11. Focus on Your Strengths

Throughout the interview process, maintain a positive mindset and stay focused on highlighting your strengths and qualifications.

    • Emphasize your relevant skills, experiences, and achievements.
    • Showcase your expertise and how it aligns with the position and the organization’s goals.
    • By focusing on your strengths, you can ensure that your qualifications shine through, regardless of any illegal questions asked.


Understanding your rights, reporting incidents when necessary, seeking legal advice if needed, and practicing interview scenarios will help you approach interviews with confidence and assertiveness. Remember, your primary goal is to showcase your qualifications and suitability for the position while protecting your rights as a job candidate.

The Art of Legal Interviewing: Asking the Right Questions

As an interviewer, it’s essential to conduct interviews fairly and legally while gathering relevant information to assess a candidate’s suitability for a position. Asking the right questions is a skill that can help you uncover valuable insights without crossing legal boundaries or violating a candidate’s rights.

Here are some key considerations for conducting a legal and effective interview:

1. Focus on Job-Related Inquiries

During an interview, your questions should primarily revolve around the candidate’s qualifications, skills, and experiences directly related to the job requirements. By focusing on job-related inquiries, you can gather meaningful information to assess their suitability for the position.

    • Ask about their specific experiences, achievements, and projects that demonstrate their capabilities for the role.
    • Inquire about their technical skills, certifications, or relevant training that align with the job responsibilities.
    • Request examples of how they have successfully handled challenges or projects similar to those they would encounter in the position.

2. Avoid Discrimination and Protected Characteristics

It is crucial to steer clear of questions that touch upon protected characteristics such as age, race, gender, religion, marital status, disabilities, or other personal attributes. Asking questions related to these aspects can be considered discriminatory and may result in legal consequences.

    • Refrain from asking about a candidate’s age or date of birth unless it is specifically required for legal or regulatory reasons.
    • Do not inquire about a candidate’s marital status, family plans, or childcare arrangements, as these topics are personal and irrelevant to their qualifications.
    • Avoid questions about a candidate’s religious beliefs, affiliations, or practices, as these are protected under anti-discrimination laws.

3. Use Behavior-Based and Situational Questions

Behavior-based and situational questions are effective in assessing a candidate’s past behaviors, problem-solving abilities, and approach to specific work scenarios. These questions focus on how candidates have handled situations in the past, providing insights into their potential performance in the future.

    • Ask candidates to describe a challenging situation they encountered in a previous role and how they successfully resolved it.
    • Inquire about their approach to teamwork, conflict resolution, or decision-making in a work setting.
    • Pose hypothetical scenarios related to the job and ask how they would handle them, assessing their problem-solving skills and critical thinking abilities.

4. Allow Candidates to Discuss Accomplishments

Giving candidates the opportunity to discuss their accomplishments allows you to assess their capabilities and their potential contributions to your organization. However, be mindful to frame these questions in a way that does not violate any legal or ethical boundaries.

    • Encourage candidates to share examples of projects they have completed or initiatives they have led.
    • Ask about specific achievements, metrics, or results they have accomplished in previous roles.
    • Inquire about their contributions to team success or any recognition they have received for their work.

5. Maintain a Consistent and Structured Interview Process

Consistency and structure are essential to ensure fairness and reduce the risk of bias during the interview process. Establishing a set of standardized questions can help you compare candidates objectively and make informed hiring decisions.

    • Develop a list of core questions that assess the essential job requirements and qualifications.
    • Ask each candidate the same set of questions to ensure fairness and facilitate meaningful comparisons.
    • Use a scoring system or evaluation criteria to objectively assess candidates’ responses and qualifications.

By maintaining a consistent and structured interview process, you can gather valuable information to assess candidates’ qualifications and make informed hiring decisions while adhering to legal and ethical standards.

Avoiding Legal Pitfalls: Best Practices for Employers

To ensure a fair and legally compliant interview process, employers should follow best practices that promote equal opportunity and avoid discriminatory practices.

By implementing the following strategies, employers can minimize the risk of legal pitfalls:

1. Establish Clear Job Requirements

    • Clearly define the essential job functions and qualifications needed for the position.
    • Develop job descriptions that accurately reflect the skills and qualifications necessary for success.

2. Design Non-Discriminatory Interview Processes

    • Develop structured interview formats that are consistent for all candidates.
    • Use standardized interview questions that are directly related to the job requirements.

3. Train Interviewers on Legal Compliance

    • Provide comprehensive training to interviewers on appropriate interview techniques and legal compliance.
    • Educate interviewers about the types of questions that are illegal to ask during an interview.

4. Focus on Job-Related Inquiries

    • Ask questions that directly relate to the candidate’s ability to perform the job.
    • Inquire about the candidate’s relevant experience, skills, and qualifications.

5. Avoid Prohibited Questions

    • Refrain from asking questions related to an applicant’s protected characteristics, such as race, gender, age, religion, marital status, or disability.
    • Do not inquire about personal or sensitive information that is not job-related.

6. Document the Interview Process

    • Keep thorough records of all interview activities, including the questions asked, the interviewer’s observations, and the rationale behind hiring decisions.
    • Maintain these records confidentially and securely.

7. Seek Legal Advice if Unsure

    • If uncertain about the legality of a specific question or practice, consult with legal counsel to ensure compliance with relevant laws and regulations.

8. Do Your Homework

    • The EEIC offers a comprehensive Resource Centre if you wish to explore details relevant to your sector, as well as resources about how to respond to a charge of discrimination.



As a candidate, you must enforce your boundaries, shed light on discriminatory practices, and try to promote the spirit of fairness at all times. You must also be educated in the boundaries of the law and enforce it in a professional and strategic way that works to your advantage.

Creating an inclusive and legally compliant interview process is crucial for employers to attract and select the best candidates while avoiding legal risks. By understanding and adhering to the principles of non-discrimination and fairness, employers can enhance their reputation, promote diversity, and build a strong and talented workforce.

Remember, the interview process should be a fair and objective evaluation of a candidate’s qualifications, skills, and experience. By focusing on job-related inquiries, providing equal opportunities, and following best practices, employers can ensure a lawful and effective interview process that benefits both the organization and job seekers.

As an employer, it is your responsibility to stay informed about the relevant laws and regulations that govern the hiring process. By prioritizing legal compliance and adopting best practices, you can create a positive and inclusive hiring environment that attracts top talent and fosters a culture of fairness and equality.


Laura-Ann Burgess

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