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How to Become a Microbiologist

By Lace Brunsden


Microbiology, the fascinating world of the unseen, is at the forefront of scientific discovery and healthcare advancements. If you’ve ever wondered how to become a microbiologist and embark on a journey of exploring the intricacies of microbes, this article is your comprehensive guide. In the following sections, we’ll walk you through the educational path, skills required, and career opportunities in this exciting field, so you can start your microbiology journey with confidence.

Career Summary

Microbiologist Salary

Microbiologist Salary

The average microbiologist salary can vary depending on the field, and the focus of their research.

The following is a breakdown of the average microbiologist salary in the United States in 2023 according to Glassdoor:

  • Entry-Level (US$ 54,000)
  • Median (US$ 69,000)
  • Senior (US$ 88,000)

What does a Microbiologist do?

Microbiologists investigate and analyze tiny life forms like bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They work in a wide range of settings, such as hospitals, research labs, and pharmaceutical companies. Their work helps improve medical treatments, ensure environmental safety, and advance biotechnological innovations. For example, a microbiologist might study how certain bacteria can help in cleaning up oil spills to protect marine ecosystems. 

Microbiologist Career Progression

  • Laboratory Technician: As an entry-level microbiologist, you’ll conduct routine experiments and assist senior microbiologists in their research.
  • Research Assistant: At this stage, you’ll work closely with senior researchers, helping design experiments, collect and analyze data, and contribute to the research process.
  • Microbiologist: As a microbiologist, you’ll have the opportunity to conduct independent research, analyze data, and potentially contribute to scientific publications in academic or industry settings.
  • Senior Microbiologist: As a senior microbiologist, you’ll take on leadership roles in research projects, mentor junior staff, and contribute to strategic planning.
  • Microbiology Director/Manager: At this stage, you’ll oversee entire microbiology departments, manage teams, and develop organizational strategies and protocols.
  • Chief Microbiologist/Chief Scientific Officer: As a chief microbiologist or chief scientific officer, you’ll provide overall leadership and vision for microbiology research and development within an organization.
Microbiologist Career Progression

Pros and Cons of Working as a Microbiologist


  • Intellectual Stimulation
  • Contribution to Scientific Advancements
  • Diverse Career Opportunities
  • Positive Impact on Public Health
  • Ongoing Learning and Innovation


  • Repetitive Laboratory Work
  • Potential Exposure to Harmful Organisms
  • High Stress Levels
  • Stringent Safety Protocols
  • Limited Career Growth

Useful Skills to Have as a Microbiologist

  • Laboratory Techniques
  • Data Analysis
  • Critical Thinking
  • Attention to Detail
  • Communication Skills

Popular Microbiologist Specialties

  • Clinical Microbiology
  • Environmental Microbiology
  • Industrial Microbiology
  • Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  • Molecular Microbiology

How to Become a Microbiologist

Microbiologist 5 Steps to Career

Step 1: Educational Foundation

Do I Need a Degree to Become a Microbiologist?

Yes, typically, you need at least a bachelor’s degree to become a microbiologist. A bachelor’s degree in a relevant field such as microbiology, biology, biochemistry, or a closely related discipline provides the foundational knowledge and skills required for a career in microbiology.

However, while a bachelor’s degree is the minimum educational requirement to enter the field of microbiology, the level of education you pursue may depend on your career goals and the specific roles you aspire to in the field.

How Long Does it Take to Get a Degree in Microbiology?

The length of time it takes to get a degree in microbiology can vary depending on the level of education you pursue and your individual circumstances.

Here are the typical durations for different levels of microbiology degrees:

  • Bachelor’s Degree (B.Sc. or B.A. in Microbiology): A bachelor’s degree in microbiology usually takes about 3 to 4 years to complete, depending on the country and the specific program. In the United States, for example, a bachelor’s degree typically takes four years.
  • Master’s Degree (M.Sc. in Microbiology): Pursuing a master’s degree in microbiology usually takes an additional 1 to 2 years after completing a bachelor’s degree. The duration can vary based on the specific program and whether you choose to complete a thesis or non-thesis track.
  • Doctoral Degree (Ph.D. in Microbiology): Obtaining a Ph.D. in microbiology typically takes an additional 4 to 6 years beyond the bachelor’s degree, depending on the research and dissertation requirements. This includes coursework, comprehensive exams, and original research.

Can I Become a Microbiologist Through Online Education?

Yes, you can pursue a career in microbiology through online education, but only to a certain extent.

Here’s how online education can play a role in becoming a microbiologist:

  • Online Courses: Many universities and colleges offer online microbiology courses. You can take these courses to gain foundational knowledge in microbiology, which can be especially useful for prerequisite coursework or as part of a flexible learning approach.
  • Online Degrees: Some institutions offer fully online bachelor’s and master’s degree programs in microbiology or related fields. You can complete your coursework through online learning.
  • Laboratory Requirements: Microbiology often involves hands-on laboratory work. While some online programs include virtual labs, it’s important to check if there are any in-person laboratory requirements or if you can access local labs for practical experience.
  • Hybrid Programs: Some programs combine online coursework with on-campus laboratory or practical components, providing a balanced approach to microbiology education.

What are Some Web Resources I Can Use to Learn Skills to Become a Microbiologist?

There are several web resources where you can learn skills and acquire knowledge to become a microbiologist.

Here are some reputable online platforms and websites to get you started:

  • MIT OpenCourseWare: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) offers free microbiology course materials, lecture notes, and resources for self-paced learning.
  • ASM MicrobeLibrary: The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) offers a wide range of educational resources, including articles, videos, journals, and virtual learning experiences.
  • MicrobeOnline: This website provides various microbiology resources, including articles, forums, and links to educational materials and courses.
  • PubMed Central: For in-depth research and scientific articles in microbiology, PubMed Central is an excellent resource, providing access to a vast database of peer-reviewed publications.
  • Microbiology Society: The Microbiology Society’s website offers educational resources, journals, and information on upcoming microbiology events and conferences.

Step 2: Gain Laboratory Experience

During your undergraduate studies, engage in laboratory courses and research projects to develop practical skills and hands-on experience. After obtaining a degree, seek internships, fellowships, or research assistant positions to gain real-world experience in microbiology labs. This can also help you build a professional network.

What are Some Internship Opportunities for a Microbiologist?

  • Research Internship: Join a research laboratory at a university, research institution, or biotechnology company. You’ll work on projects related to microbiology, contributing to ongoing studies and experiments.
  • Clinical Microbiology Internship: Hospitals and clinical laboratories often offer internships for microbiology students. You’ll assist in diagnosing infectious diseases, analyzing patient samples, and conducting various tests.
  • Pharmaceutical Industry Internship: Pharmaceutical companies provide opportunities for microbiology students to work on drug development, quality control, and ensuring the sterility of pharmaceutical products.
  • Environmental Microbiology Internship: Collaborate with environmental agencies or consulting firms to study the role of microorganisms in ecological systems, water quality, and environmental health.
  • Food and Beverage Industry Internship: Explore internship roles in the food and beverage industry, where you can focus on quality control, safety testing, and food preservation processes.
  • Biotechnology Internship: Biotech firms offer internships for those interested in genetic engineering, bioprocessing, and the development of biotechnology products using microorganisms.
  • Government Agencies: Consider internships with government agencies like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which conduct research and monitor public health and environmental issues.
  • Microbiology Education Internship: If you’re passionate about education, seek internship opportunities at universities or science outreach programs where you can assist in microbiology education and outreach initiatives.
  • Non-Profit Organizations: Some non-profit organizations focus on global health, infectious disease control, and environmental conservation, offering internships in microbiology-related projects.
  • Industrial Microbiology Internship: Explore roles in industries where microbiologists work on fermentation processes, biofuel production, or biopesticides.

What Skills Will I Learn as a Microbiologist?

As a microbiologist, you will acquire a diverse set of skills that are crucial for your work in studying microorganisms and their applications in various fields.

Here are some of the key skills you’ll learn:

  • Laboratory Techniques: You will become proficient in a wide range of laboratory techniques, including aseptic techniques, microscopy, culturing microorganisms, and molecular biology methods like PCR.
  • Microbial Identification: You’ll learn how to identify and classify different microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, using various techniques such as DNA sequencing and biochemical tests.
  • Data Analysis: You’ll gain skills in analyzing data from experiments, interpreting research findings, and using statistical methods to draw meaningful conclusions.
  • Critical Thinking: Microbiologists are trained to think critically, solve complex problems, and design experiments to address specific research questions.
  • Experimental Design: You’ll learn how to design experiments, control variables, and set up protocols to ensure the reliability of research results.
  • Safety Protocols: Safety is paramount in microbiology, so you’ll become well-versed in laboratory safety procedures and the handling of potentially hazardous microorganisms.
  • Microscopy: You’ll develop expertise in using various types of microscopes to observe and analyze microorganisms at the cellular and subcellular levels.
  • Bioinformatics: In the age of genomics, you may acquire skills in bioinformatics to analyze and interpret microbial genomic data.
  • Communication: Effective communication, both written and verbal, is essential for presenting research findings, writing reports, and collaborating with colleagues and peers.
  • Problem-Solving: You’ll become skilled at identifying and solving problems related to microbial growth, contamination, and disease control.
  • Project Management: In research and industry settings, you may develop project management skills to plan and execute experiments, manage resources, and meet project goals.
  • Quality Control: In industry, you’ll learn quality control and quality assurance processes to ensure the safety and reliability of products related to microbiology.
  • Teaching and Mentoring: If you choose to work in academia, you may acquire teaching and mentoring skills to educate and guide students in microbiology.
  • Adaptability: Microbiologists often work with a wide variety of microorganisms and technologies, so you’ll become adaptable and open to learning new techniques and methods.
  • Ethical Conduct: You’ll develop a strong understanding of ethical considerations in microbiology research, particularly in issues related to human and environmental health.

Step 3: Advanced Education (Optional)

Consider pursuing a master’s or Ph.D. in microbiology or a related field for more specialized knowledge and research opportunities.

Why is it Important to Get a Postgraduate Degree in Microbiology?

Obtaining a postgraduate degree in microbiology is important for the following reasons:

  • Career Opportunities: Higher education in microbiology, such as a master’s or Ph.D., can lead to more advanced leadership roles, which often come with increased responsibility and salary. Having a degree opens up a wide range of job opportunities in academia, research institutions, healthcare, industry, and government agencies.
  • Research and Innovation: A postgraduate microbiology degree equips you to contribute to scientific advancements, discover new solutions to pressing issues (e.g., infectious diseases, antibiotic resistance), and develop innovative technologies in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.
  • Networking Opportunities: Graduate programs provide opportunities to network with professors, fellow students, and professionals in the field, fostering connections that can lead to collaboration and job opportunities.

Step 4: Develop Specializations (Optional)

Depending on your career goals and interests, you might consider specialization. Specializing in microbiology can be beneficial if you have specific career objectives in mind. For example, if you aspire to become a research scientist, a clinical microbiologist, or work in a particular industry like biotechnology, specializing can be advantageous.

Microbiology is a broad discipline encompassing various areas such as medical microbiology, environmental microbiology, industrial microbiology, and more. Specializing in an area that aligns with your passions can lead to a more fulfilling career.

Step 5: Licensing and Certification (if applicable)

Depending on your specific career path, you may need to obtain state licensure or professional certifications. For example, if you are working in a clinical laboratory setting, especially in diagnostic microbiology, you may need to obtain certification from relevant organizations, such as the American Board of Medical Microbiology (ABMM) or the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). These certifications demonstrate your competence in medical microbiology.

In some cases, environmental microbiologists may need certifications related to water quality, food safety, or other specialized areas, depending on their specific job responsibilities and the regulatory requirements in their region.

If you work in research or industry settings without direct patient care or environmental monitoring responsibilities, certification may not be mandatory. However, it can still be beneficial for career advancement and credibility.

Licensing and certification requirements can also be influenced by state or country-specific regulations. Be sure to research the requirements in your location, as they can vary significantly.

What’s the Career Outlook for Microbiologists

The career outlook for microbiologists in the USA is generally positive, with opportunities in various sectors, including research, healthcare, industry, and government. 

According to the United States Bureau of Labour Statistics, the projected outlook between 2022 and 2023 is about 5%, which is faster than the average.

Microbiologist Popular Career Specialties

What are the Job Opportunities of a Microbiologist?

As a microbiologist, you’ll have a wide range of job opportunities and positions available to you in various sectors.

Here are some of the common career paths and positions:

  • Research Microbiologist: Conducting research in academic institutions, research labs, or biotechnology companies to advance scientific knowledge and develop new technologies.
  • Clinical Microbiologist: Working in clinical laboratories to diagnose and manage infectious diseases, analyze patient samples, and conduct diagnostic tests.
  • Industrial Microbiologist: Employed by industries such as pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, and biotechnology, to ensure product quality, develop new products, and maintain safety standards.
  • Environmental Microbiologist: Studying the role of microorganisms in ecosystems, water quality, and environmental health, often working with government agencies or environmental consulting firms.
  • Pharmaceutical Microbiologist: Focusing on drug development and quality control, ensuring the sterility of pharmaceutical products, and conducting research on antibiotics and vaccines.
  • Quality Control Microbiologist: Ensuring the quality and safety of products in various industries, including food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.
  • Teaching/Professor: Educating students at universities and colleges, conducting research, and contributing to academic institutions.
  • Epidemiologist: Studying the patterns and causes of diseases in populations, often working for public health agencies or research institutions.
  • Bioinformatics Specialist: Analyzing and interpreting microbial genomic data using computational techniques, which are essential in genomics and metagenomics research.
  • Public Health Microbiologist: Working in government health departments to monitor and control infectious diseases, investigate outbreaks, and develop disease prevention strategies.
  • Bioprocess Engineer: Working in biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to develop and optimize processes for the production of biopharmaceuticals and other products.
  • Food Safety Microbiologist: Ensuring the safety of food products by monitoring for microbial contamination, conducting quality control, and developing food preservation techniques.
  • Environmental Consultant: Providing expertise in environmental microbiology, including the assessment and management of environmental contamination and remediation projects.
  • Virologist: Specializing in the study of viruses and their impact on human health, agriculture, and ecosystems.

What Type of Companies Hire a Microbiologist?

Microbiologists are in demand across various industries, and a wide range of companies and organizations may hire you as a microbiologist.

Here are some types of companies and sectors where you can find employment as a microbiologist:

  • Pharmaceutical Companies: These companies employ microbiologists to work on drug development, quality control, and research into antibiotics, vaccines, and other pharmaceutical products.
  • Biotechnology Firms: Microbiologists in biotech companies are involved in genetic engineering, bioprocessing, and the development of biotechnology products using microorganisms.
  • Clinical Laboratories: Hospitals, medical centers, and private clinical labs hire clinical microbiologists to diagnose infectious diseases, analyze patient samples, and perform diagnostic tests.
  • Food and Beverage Industry: Companies in this sector employ microbiologists to ensure the safety and quality of food products, conduct microbiological testing, and develop food preservation techniques.
  • Environmental Agencies: Government environmental agencies hire microbiologists to monitor environmental health, study ecosystems, and ensure water and soil quality.
  • Government and Public Health Agencies: Federal, state, and local health departments, as well as agencies like the CDC, employ microbiologists to address public health concerns, investigate disease outbreaks, and control infectious diseases.
  • Academic and Research Institutions: Universities and colleges hire microbiologists as professors or researchers, where they conduct research, teach, and mentor students. Research organizations, both public and private, offer opportunities for microbiologists to engage in cutting-edge research projects.
  • Agricultural and Agribusiness Companies: Microbiologists in agriculture work on crop protection, soil health, and the development of microbial solutions for sustainable farming practices.
  • Cosmetic and Personal Care Industry: Companies in this sector employ microbiologists to ensure the safety and quality of cosmetics and personal care products.
  • Waste Management Companies: Some microbiologists work on waste management, specifically in wastewater treatment and the use of microorganisms for bioremediation.
  • Veterinary Laboratories: These facilities hire microbiologists to diagnose and manage infectious diseases in animals.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Microbiologist?

Your work-life balance as a microbiologist can vary depending on your specific job, employer, and career stage.

Here’s what you can generally expect:

  • Academic/Research Roles: If you’re in academia or research, you may have flexibility but could experience periods of intense work, especially when conducting experiments or writing research papers. Balancing work and personal life is often manageable, but expect busy periods when grant deadlines and publication timelines require extra effort.
  • Clinical Microbiologist: Working in clinical laboratories, you’ll typically have more predictable hours, which can contribute to a better work-life balance. However, shift work, on-call duties, or weekend rotations may be part of the job in some clinical settings.
  • Industry Positions: Work-life balance in the industry varies. Some positions may involve regular working hours, while others, especially in quality control or production roles, could require shift work or overtime during busy periods.
  • Environmental Microbiology: If you’re an environmental microbiologist, your schedule can be more regular with fewer urgent demands, leading to a relatively good work-life balance.
  • Government Agencies: Working for government agencies often comes with regular hours, offering a stable work-life balance, and opportunities to engage in research and public health work.
  • Teaching/Professors: In academia, while you have the flexibility of setting your class schedule, the workload can be substantial due to teaching, research, and administrative responsibilities. Balancing these duties can be challenging but rewarding.
  • Biotechnology: Biotechnology companies may have a fast-paced environment, which can occasionally affect work-life balance. However, it’s possible to find positions with stable hours in research and development roles.

Should I Become a Microbiologist?

In conclusion, the decision to become a microbiologist is a personal one that should be based on your interests, aspirations, and the impact you wish to make on the world. Microbiology is a dynamic field with a broad spectrum of career opportunities, from research and healthcare to industry and environmental science. If you possess a deep curiosity about the unseen world of microorganisms, a passion for scientific discovery, and a commitment to improving public health and the environment, a career as a microbiologist can be both fulfilling and rewarding.

As you’ve explored the essential skills, education requirements, and potential career paths in this article, you’ve likely gained a clearer understanding of what it takes to become a microbiologist. Your decision should consider your dedication to continuous learning, your willingness to adapt to evolving technologies, and your enthusiasm for making contributions to scientific advancements and public well-being.

Ultimately, becoming a microbiologist is not only about the pursuit of knowledge but also the opportunity to be part of critical research, disease control, and innovations that shape the future. If you find the world of microorganisms intriguing and are ready to embrace the challenges and opportunities this field offers, a career as a microbiologist may be a fulfilling and impactful choice. It’s a path that can lead to breakthroughs in science, improve human and environmental health, and provide a strong sense of purpose in your professional journey. So, should you become a microbiologist? The answer lies within your passion and your vision for the positive changes you wish to create in the world.

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Lace Brunsden

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