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How to Become a Locomotive Engineer

By Ajoke Aminu


Do you have a love for trains and a desire for a career that takes you on the tracks? Locomotive engineers play a crucial role in the transportation industry, ensuring the safe and efficient movement of goods and people by rail. If you have a passion for trains, enjoy working in a dynamic environment, and have a strong sense of responsibility, join us as we reveal how to become a locomotive engineer in this comprehensive guide.

Career Summary

What is the Locomotive Engineer Salary? 

Locomotive Engineer Salary

It’s common knowledge that engineering jobs pay well. As it turns out, the locomotive engineer salary varies depending on a few factors, including experience, location, and the type of railroad the engineer is working for.

According to Glassdoor, here is the average locomotive engineer salary trajectory

  • Entry (US$67K)
  • Median (US$85K)
  • Executive (US$109K)

Let’s cut right to the chase. The locomotive engineer salary falls into the above-average category when compared to the general income of US citizens.

What does a Locomotive Engineer do?

Locomotive engineers have the important responsibility of safely maneuvering trains between stations, while also adapting to various factors that could impact their journey. From hauling freight to transporting passengers, these skilled professionals know how to alter their approach and speed based on the cargo onboard and any potential weather challenges. 

What does a Locomotive Engineer do? | Video by Metropolitan Transportation Authority

Locomotive Engineer Career Progression 

  • Trainee/Junior Locomotive Engineer: Entry-level position where individuals receive on-the-job training and work under the supervision of experienced engineers to learn the basics of operating a locomotive.
  • Locomotive Engineer: After completing the necessary training and gaining sufficient experience, individuals become qualified to operate locomotives independently, ensuring safe and efficient train operations.
  • Senior Locomotive Engineer: With years of experience, senior locomotive engineers may take on additional responsibilities, such as mentoring and training new engineers, overseeing train operations, and assisting with troubleshooting technical issues.
  • Locomotive Engineer Supervisor: In a supervisory role, individuals are responsible for managing and coordinating the work of a team of locomotive engineers, ensuring adherence to schedules, implementing safety protocols, and overseeing the overall efficiency of train operations.
  • Operations Manager/Director: At the executive level, operations managers or directors oversee the entire train operations department, including locomotive engineers. They are responsible for strategic planning, budgeting, managing resources, and ensuring compliance with regulations and industry standards.
Locomotive Engineer Career Progression

The Pros and Cons of Working as a Locomotive Engineer


  • Opportunity to travel and see different parts of the country.
  • Competitive salary and benefits.
  • Job stability and long-term career prospects.
  • Sense of independence and responsibility.
  • Continuous learning and skill development.


  • Irregular and unpredictable work hours, including nights, weekends, and holidays.
  • Potential for long periods away from home and family.
  • High level of stress and responsibility for the safety of passengers or cargo.
  • Limited opportunities for advancement beyond supervisory roles.

Useful Skills to Have as a Locomotive Engineer

  • Strong attention to detail.
  • Excellent problem-solving and decision-making abilities.
  • Effective communication and teamwork skills.
  • Proficiency in operating and interpreting locomotive equipment and controls.
  • Sound judgment and the ability to remain calm under pressure.

Popular Locomotive Engineer Specialties 

  • Passenger Train Engineer
  • Freight Train Engineer
  • High-Speed Rail Engineer
  • Switching Engineer (yard operations)
  • Specialized Equipment Engineer (e.g., locomotives with specific functions or attachments)

How to Become a Locomotive Engineer

Locomotive Engineer 4 Steps to Career

Breaking into the ever-evolving world of transportation and getting a piece of the locomotive engineer salary requires more than just a passing interest—it takes some dedication and know-how to achieve your goals. 

The right qualifications to become a locomotive engineer typically include a combination of education, practical training, and experience to master the technical skills needed for the job. More importantly, this career path involves attending a training program provided by the railroad company or through a vocational school. 

Thus, you will need to complete on-the-job training and pass a series of rigorous written and practical exams before taking the controls of a massive mechanical beast on your own. If you’re up for the challenge, let’s look more closely into how you can meet the locomotive engineer training and requirements!

Step 1: Meet the Minimum Education Requirements

Do I Need a Degree to Become a Locomotive Engineer?

A college degree is not necessarily a requirement to become a locomotive engineer, as a high school diploma or equivalent is the minimum educational requirement. However, it’s important to note that specific qualifications may vary depending on the country and the company you wish to work for. 

Instead of a degree, aspiring locomotive engineers usually undergo extensive training through vocational programs or apprenticeships offered by railway companies or trade schools. These programs provide the necessary knowledge and skills to operate locomotives safely and effectively, covering topics such as locomotive operation and control, safety procedures, signals and communications, and railway regulations. Ultimately, the focus in becoming a locomotive engineer lies in gaining the necessary training and experience rather than pursuing a formal degree.

Regardless, if you are looking to take your locomotive engineering skills to the next level, there is a bachelor’s degree in railroad engineering available. 

Lastly, some organizations and unions, like BLET (Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Trainmen), offer scholarships to students pursuing careers in railroad operations and engineering.

Useful Resources for Aspiring Locomotive Engineers 

For those who want to know how to become a locomotive engineer, there are a variety of web resources available to help sharpen your skills and knowledge of the trade. Whether you’re looking to learn about locomotive design, railroad safety, or the ins and outs of the job itself, there are online courses, tutorials, and forums that can help you become a successful locomotive engineer. 

  • Federal Railroad Administration (FRA): The FRA provides regulations, safety information, and educational resources related to the railroad industry. Their website is a valuable source of information on rules and safety procedures.
  • American Association of Railroad Superintendents (AARS): AARS offers educational resources and webinars for those interested in railroad careers. They cover various aspects of railroad operations, including engineer training.
  • American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA): AREMA provides educational materials, publications, and standards related to railroad engineering and maintenance. This can be valuable for understanding rail systems.
  • Railinc: Railinc offers a range of training resources and courses related to rail data, technology, and logistics. These skills are relevant to the modern railroad industry.

Step 2: Complete Locomotive Engineer Training Programs or Apprenticeships

Training programs and apprenticeships work hand-in-hand to provide a hands-on learning experience for you. These programs enable you to gain valuable insight into the technical aspects of operating a locomotive and the day-to-day responsibilities that come with the job. 

Here are a few options to consider:

  • Railway Company Training Programs or Internships: Many railway companies offer two to three-month comprehensive training programs for aspiring locomotive engineers. You can reach out to major railroad companies such as Union Pacific, BNSF Railway, CSX, Norfolk Southern, and Amtrak. These programs combine classroom instruction with practical, on-the-job training. Through these programs, you’ll learn how to handle different types of locomotives, operate controls, and understand and respond to various signals and track conditions.
  • Trade Schools and Vocational Programs: Trade schools and vocational programs often offer specific courses or certifications related to locomotive engineering. These programs focus on providing in-depth technical knowledge and hands-on experience in locomotive operations. They cover topics such as mechanical systems, electrical controls, troubleshooting, and safety protocols. Graduating from a reputable trade school or vocational program can enhance your employability in the locomotive industry.
  • Apprenticeships: They provide practical training and an opportunity to work alongside experienced engineers. They offer exposure to various aspects of locomotive operations, including safety protocols, maintenance procedures, and communication systems. Apprenticeships can be an excellent way to gain valuable industry experience and make connections within the railroad industry. Here are some examples of locomotive engineer internship opportunities:
    • Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) Apprenticeships: Local transit agencies often offer apprenticeships for those interested in locomotive engineering. For example, MTA in New York City provides apprenticeships related to rail operations and maintenance.
    • Short Line Railroad Apprenticeships: Smaller short line and regional railroads may offer internship opportunities, providing a more localized and hands-on experience.
    • Railroad Equipment Manufacturers: Companies that manufacture locomotives and rail equipment, like General Electric (GE) or Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD), may have apprenticeships related to locomotive engineering and design.
    • Local Transit Agencies: Explore internship opportunities with local transit agencies that operate commuter trains or light rail services. These positions may provide a foundation in locomotive operations.
    • Railroad Apprenticeship Programs: Some railroads offer formal apprenticeship programs that combine on-the-job training with classroom instruction, which can be a pathway to becoming a locomotive engineer.

Step 3: Develop Essential Locomotive Engineer Skills

When it comes to pursuing a career as a locomotive engineer, there are numerous skills that one must hone in order to succeed. From mastering the operation of various control systems to understanding the intricate nuances of rail safety regulations, there is a lot to learn during your training. So, if you’re wondering how to become a locomotive engineer, be sure to brush up on these essential skills to fully maximize your potential in this fascinating and rewarding field. 

  • Train Operation Skills: Understand the principles of train operation, including starting, stopping, acceleration, and braking. Learn how to control train speed and manage different types of locomotives and railcars.
  • Safety Awareness: Prioritize safety at all times. Develop the ability to recognize and respond to potential safety hazards, follow safety protocols, and take appropriate actions in emergency situations.
  • Route Familiarity: Gain knowledge of the rail routes, including signal systems, track layouts, and designated speeds. Familiarity with the routes is crucial for efficient and safe operations.
  • Mechanical Aptitude: Develop a basic understanding of locomotive mechanics and components. This knowledge is valuable for recognizing and addressing minor issues and conducting routine inspections.
  • Spatial Awareness: Train engineers need to have a good sense of spatial awareness to navigate rail systems and handle large locomotives and railcars.
  • Situational Awareness: Stay aware of the surroundings, track conditions, weather, and other factors that can affect train operations.
  • Regulatory Knowledge: Gain a solid understanding of railroad regulations, rules, and operating procedures to ensure compliance.
  • Map Reading and Navigation: Learn to read rail maps and navigation systems to determine your route and make informed decisions during operations.
  • Emergency Response: Be prepared to respond to various emergency situations, such as derailments, mechanical failures, or medical emergencies on board.

Finally, it’s equally important to develop basic skills such as teamwork, attention to detail, problem-solving, communication, and time management. These skills will help you collaborate effectively with crew members, handle technical issues, communicate clearly, stay aware of your surroundings, and provide a positive experience for passengers.

Step 4: Obtain a Locomotive Engineer’s License

Obtaining a train engineer’s license gives you credibility in the industry and this added advantage also comes with an industry-standard locomotive engineer salary potential. A train engineer’s license requires a combination of education, training, and experience, as we’ve illustrated before. Although it’s essential to research and follow the guidelines provided by the relevant regulatory authority or employer to ensure compliance with all necessary requirements, here are the general steps to follow:

  • Meet the Minimum Requirements: Ensure that you meet the minimum requirements we highlighted and you can also research the ones set by the regulatory authority or the company you wish to work for. Typically, this includes being at least 18 years old, holding a high school diploma or equivalent, and possessing a valid driver’s license.
  • Pass Examinations: Prepare for and pass written and practical examinations administered by the regulatory authority or the company you are seeking employment with. These exams assess your knowledge of train operations, safety protocols, and your ability to handle different situations.
  • Obtain a License: After successfully passing the examinations, you can apply for a train engineer’s license. The licensing process may involve submitting an application, providing documentation of your qualifications and experience, and paying any required fees.
  • Maintain Continuing Education: Stay updated with industry regulations and advancements by participating in continuing education and training programs. This ensures that you remain knowledgeable and competent in your role as a train engineer.

How Long Does it Take to Become a Locomotive Engineer?

Considering the requirements we mentioned, it can take anywhere from several months to a few years to become a locomotive engineer. The process typically involves completing the required education and training programs, gaining practical experience under the guidance of experienced engineers, and obtaining the necessary licenses and certifications. The duration of these steps can vary based on the specific training program, the availability of apprenticeships, and the requirements set by regulatory authorities or railway companies. 

Generally, it’s important to approach the journey to becoming a locomotive engineer with patience and a commitment to learning and skill development. By following the necessary steps and investing the required time, you can work towards achieving your goal of becoming a qualified locomotive engineer.

What’s the Career Outlook for Locomotive Engineers?

As we look towards the near future, the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts moderate growth for those interested in pursuing a career as a locomotive engineer. While a 4% increase is not necessarily a guaranteed ticket to prosperity, it certainly indicates a promising path from 2021 to 2031. So, if you’re hearing the gentle call of the rails, be sure to consider the diverse industries and opportunities available in different parts of the country. With determination and a steadfast love of locomotives, you might just find yourself at the forefront of a burgeoning industry.

Locomotive Engineer Popular Career Specialties

What are the Job Opportunities of a Locomotive Engineer? 

It’s natural to be curious about the job opportunities that await you as you learn how to become a locomotive engineer. The catch is, whether you long to work for a major railroad company, or as a freelance engineer, you can look forward to earning an attractive locomotive engineer salary. Without further ado, let’s explore the many options available to you as a newly-minted locomotive engineer today! 

  • Freight Railroads: Major freight railroad companies such as Union Pacific, BNSF Railway, CSX, and Norfolk Southern offer employment opportunities for locomotive engineers. These roles involve operating freight trains to transport goods across the country.
  • Passenger Rail: Passenger rail services like Amtrak and local commuter rail agencies hire locomotive engineers to operate passenger trains. This includes intercity and commuter services.
  • Short Line Railroads: Short line and regional railroads provide opportunities for locomotive engineers to operate shorter routes, often connecting with larger freight railroads.
  • Light Rail and Transit Systems: Light rail systems and urban transit agencies employ locomotive engineers to operate light rail and streetcar systems in urban areas.
  • Switching and Terminal Railroads: Switching and terminal railroads operate within industrial facilities, ports, and terminals. Locomotive engineers in these roles move railcars within confined areas.
  • Tourist Railroads: Some tourist railroads and heritage railroads hire locomotive engineers to operate vintage trains for tourism and historical reenactments.
  • Specialized Operations: Certain specialized operations, such as transporting hazardous materials or operating on unique rail lines, may require locomotive engineers with specific skills and certifications.
  • Engineering and Training: Experienced locomotive engineers can transition into roles related to training and education. They may become trainers or instructors for new engineers.
  • Management and Supervisory Roles: With experience, locomotive engineers can advance into supervisory or management positions within railroad companies.
  • Railroad Equipment Manufacturing: Some locomotive engineers work for companies that manufacture locomotives and rail equipment, providing technical expertise in design and testing.
  • Freelance or Contract Work: Locomotive engineers can work as freelance operators or consultants, offering their expertise to various railroad-related projects and companies.
  • Regulatory and Compliance Roles: Some locomotive engineers may transition into roles focused on ensuring regulatory compliance and safety within the industry.

What Type of Companies Hire a Locomotive Engineer?

Here are the types of companies with each offering a competitive locomotive engineer salary:

  • Class I Freight Railroad Companies: Major freight railroad companies are prominent employers of locomotive engineers. They operate extensive rail networks for transporting goods across the country.
  • Passenger Rail Services: Passenger rail services, including Amtrak and regional commuter rail systems, employ locomotive engineers to operate trains that transport passengers to different destinations.
  • Freight and Logistics Companies: Freight and logistics companies, such as FedEx, UPS, and DHL, may have their own rail operations or contract with rail carriers. These companies hire locomotive engineers to ensure the efficient transportation of goods by rail.
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Companies: Some industrial and manufacturing companies operate their private rail lines for transporting raw materials, finished products, or equipment. These companies may hire locomotive engineers to manage their rail operations.
  • Mining and Resource Extraction Companies: Mining and resource extraction companies, such as coal mines or oil refineries, often have their dedicated rail infrastructure. Locomotive engineers are employed to operate trains that transport materials to and from these sites.
  • Government Agencies: Government agencies, such as transportation departments or military organizations, may employ locomotive engineers for various purposes, such as managing rail transportation systems or operating specialized military trains.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Locomotive Engineer? 

The work-life balance of a locomotive engineer can vary based on factors such as the specific company, type of service, and individual schedules.

Here are some general aspects to consider:

  • Irregular Hours: Locomotive engineers often work irregular hours, including nights, weekends, and holidays. This can impact traditional work-life balance norms.
  • Long Shifts: Shifts for locomotive engineers can be long, especially for those involved in freight transportation. They might be away from home for extended periods, potentially leading to time away from family.
  • On-Call Requirements: Some engineers may be on-call, meaning they must be ready to report for duty on short notice. This can affect planned personal time.
  • Rest Periods: Locomotive engineers must adhere to strict rest regulations to ensure they are well-rested for safety reasons. This can influence the predictability of their schedules.
  • Seniority Impact: Work schedules may be influenced by seniority. More experienced engineers might have greater control over their schedules and enjoy a better work-life balance.
  • Industry and Company Practices: Work-life balance can also depend on the policies and practices of the specific railway company or industry sector. Some companies may prioritize employee well-being, while others may have more demanding schedules.

It’s essential to research and understand the specific work conditions and expectations of the company you are interested in. While the nature of the job can involve challenges to traditional work-life balance, some individuals thrive in this environment.

Should I Become a Locomotive Engineer?

This is a significant decision that warrants thorough research, especially given the several key points discussed in this article. Beyond the facts of the locomotive engineer salary and how to become a locomotive engineer, there are personal interests and skills that need to be considered before taking the plunge. 

It’s important to note that a career as a locomotive engineer requires a high level of physical fitness and readiness to handle the stressors that come with the job. Yet, if you possess the necessary qualities, the rewards can be long-lasting. To make an informed decision, consider your long-term goals and weigh the pros and cons. Ultimately, only you can decide if this career path is right for you! 

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Ajoke Aminu

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