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How to Become a Computer Scientist

By Ajoke Aminu


Do you dream of becoming the next Bill Gates? Well, becoming a computer scientist might just be the path for you, as we live in a world where technology is increasingly important, yet many feel overwhelmed by it and unable to understand the basics. Fortunately, this article provides easy-to-understand explanations for the fundamentals of computer science that gets you ahead in tech.

Career Summary

Computer Scientist Salary

According to recent studies, the average computer scientist salary in the United States is a whopping US$94,337– not your average 9-to-5 paycheck! But wait, it gets even better as you scale:

  • Entry Salary (US$94k)
  • Median Salary (US$117k)
  • Executive Salary (US$164k)

To put that into perspective, the average income for a US citizen is around US$60,000 per year, meaning Computer Scientists are making almost double the average American’s salary!

What does a Computer Scientist do?

A computer scientist, for starters, is responsible for designing and implementing the software and hardware systems that power our digital world. Think of them as the superheroes of the cyberworld– the ones who ensure that your favorite apps run smoothly, your emails are delivered securely, and your devices stay free of pesky programs that threaten their functionality. From solving complex mathematical equations to debugging faulty code, computer and information research scientists are experts in all things digital.

Computer Scientist Career Progression

  • Entry-Level Positions: Computer scientists often begin their careers in entry-level roles such as software developer, programmer, or data analyst. These positions allow them to gain practical experience and apply their foundational knowledge.
  • Mid-Level Positions: After gaining a few years of experience, computer scientists can advance to mid-level positions such as software engineer, data scientist, or systems analyst. They take on more complex responsibilities, work on larger projects, and may start leading small teams.
  • Senior-Level Positions: With significant experience and expertise, computer scientists can move into senior-level positions like senior software architect, data science manager, or technical lead. In these roles, they have greater responsibilities, mentor junior team members, make strategic decisions, and may oversee multiple projects.
  • Specialization or Management Roles: As computer scientists progress in their careers, they may choose to specialize in a specific area of computer science, such as artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, or cloud computing. Alternatively, they can transition into management roles like IT project manager, technology director, or research scientist, where they oversee teams, budgets, and strategic initiatives.
  • Leadership or Executive Positions: With extensive experience and demonstrated leadership skills, computer scientists can advance to executive positions such as Chief Technology Officer (CTO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), or technology consultant. In these roles, they provide strategic direction, drive innovation, and make high-level decisions that impact the organization’s technology landscape.
Computer Scientist Career Progression


  • Computer scientists are in high demand across various industries, providing a wide range of job opportunities and career advancement prospects.
  • Due to the demand for their skills, computer scientists often enjoy competitive salaries and attractive compensation packages.
  • Computer scientists have the opportunity to work on cutting-edge technologies and contribute to technological advancements, fostering innovation and creativity.
  • Many computer science roles offer flexible work arrangements, such as remote work options, flexible hours, and location independence, providing a better work-life balance.
  • Computer science is a dynamic field, requiring professionals to engage in continuous learning. This keeps their skills up-to-date and allows for ongoing growth and development.


  • The field of computer science evolves rapidly, requiring professionals to constantly adapt to new technologies, programming languages, and industry trends.
  • Computer scientists often face tight deadlines and high-pressure situations, especially when working on critical projects or dealing with complex technical challenges.
  • The fast-paced nature of the field and the need for technical expertise can lead to high expectations from employers and clients, requiring computer scientists to consistently perform at a high level.

Most Important Computer Scientist Skills

  • Programming and Coding
  • Network and Security
  • Mathematics and Algorithms
  • Data Structures
  • Software Development Methodologies

Popular Computer Scientist Specialization

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning: This specialty focuses on developing algorithms and models that enable computers to simulate intelligent behavior. Computer scientists in this field work on tasks like natural language processing, computer vision, robotics, and predictive modeling.
  • Data Science and Analytics: Data scientists specialize in extracting insights and valuable information from large datasets. They use statistical analysis, machine learning, and data visualization techniques to uncover patterns, trends, and correlations that can drive informed decision-making.
  • Cybersecurity: With the increasing prevalence of cyber threats, computer scientists specializing in cybersecurity play a critical role in protecting computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, breaches, and other security risks. They develop security protocols, perform risk assessments, and implement measures to safeguard digital assets.
  • Software Engineering: Software engineers focus on designing, developing, and maintaining software systems. They apply engineering principles to create robust, scalable, and efficient software solutions for various purposes, including web and mobile applications, operating systems, and enterprise software.
  • Computer Networks and Systems: Computer scientists specializing in networks and systems design and maintain the infrastructure that allows computers to communicate and share resources. They work on tasks such as network architecture, network security, cloud computing, and distributed systems.

How to become a Computer Scientist

Computer Scientist 5 Steps to Career

Considering a future in tech can be mind-boggling without the right guidance, especially as a computer scientist. We are here to hold you by the hands as you take the leap into the exciting world of computer science. In this guide, you will find the key steps you need to take to become the next tech superstar.

Getting a Tech Education

Is a Computer Science degree required?

No, you do not necessarily need a degree to become a computer scientist. Regardless, it is still relevant. While a formal degree in computer science or a related field can provide a strong foundation and open up opportunities, it is not the only path to a successful career in computer science.

So, why should I get a Computer Science degree?

Several businesses are more likely to interview candidates with a reasonable degree of education, which is highlighted even in the computer scientist job description.

Despite the possibility to succeed without a computer science degree, it is essential to consider these factors before deciding not to obtain one:

  • Foundational Knowledge: A degree program provides a structured curriculum that covers essential concepts, theories, and principles of computer science. It offers a comprehensive understanding of algorithms, data structures, programming languages, software development, computer architecture, and other core topics. This foundational knowledge forms a solid base for a career in computer science.
  • Specialized Education: A degree program allows you to specialize in specific areas of computer science based on your interests and career goals. You can choose elective courses or concentrate on fields like artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, software engineering, database systems, or computer graphics. Specialization can give you an advantage in the job market and open up opportunities in specific industries or research areas.
  • Credibility and Validation: A degree serves as tangible proof of your dedication, commitment, and expertise in the field. Employers often value a degree as it demonstrates that you have undergone a rigorous academic program and acquired a certain level of knowledge and skills. It can help you stand out among other candidates, especially in competitive job markets.
  • Career Advancement: Some roles in the field, particularly in research or academia, may require an advanced degree, such as a Master’s or Ph.D. Having a bachelor’s degree in computer science can be a stepping stone toward pursuing higher education and advancing your career in specialized areas.

What is the typical duration to earn a degree in Computer Science?

If you are wondering how long it will take before you can officially call yourself a computer scientist, the answer is not as simple as a one-size-fits-all approach.

Depending on the program you choose you should earn various degrees in the following timelines:

  • Bachelor’s Degree: A traditional undergraduate degree in computer science, such as a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) or a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), typically takes around four years to complete. This duration assumes full-time enrollment and successful completion of all required courses.
  • Accelerated Bachelor’s Degree: Some universities offer accelerated programs that allow motivated students to complete their bachelor’s degree in a shorter timeframe, often in three years. These programs often involve heavier course loads, summer semesters, or credit for prior learning.
  • Master’s Degree: A Master of Science (M.S.) in computer science typically takes about two years to complete after earning a bachelor’s degree. This duration may vary depending on whether the program is pursued on a full-time or part-time basis.
  • Ph.D. Degree: A Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in computer science is a research-focused degree that can take anywhere from four to six years or more to complete. The duration depends on the student’s research progress, the complexity of the research topic, and other factors specific to the individual’s work.

Financial Commitments Involved in Studying Computer Science at University

Have you ever found yourself hovering over the “enroll” button for a Computer Science program, only to hesitate because you’re unsure of the costs? Although the cost of tuition for computer science programs at universities in the United States varies, this estimate can guide you.

On average, for the 2021-2022 academic year, the tuition fees for computer science degrees were approximately $13,300 for in-state students attending public universities and $46,497 for out-of-state students.

Additionally, you must remember to consider other expenses such as room and board, books and supplies, technology and equipment, and miscellaneous. To get an accurate estimate of the total cost, it’s recommended to visit the websites of specific universities you are interested in or contact their financial aid offices. Lastly, it’s also worth mentioning that computer science financial aid, scholarships, and grants can help offset the cost of studying.

Can I earn my Computer Science Degree Through Online Learning?

Yes, it is possible to become a computer scientist through online education. Some forms of online learning include:

  • Self-study: There are abundant online resources, tutorials, and courses available that can help you learn computer science concepts and programming languages. Platforms like Coursera and Udemy offer a wide range of courses from reputable institutions and instructors.
  • Bootcamps: Coding bootcamps are intensive, short-term training programs designed to teach specific programming skills. They often focus on practical application and hands-on experience, preparing students for specific roles in the industry. Bootcamps are typically shorter and more focused than traditional degrees.
  • Open-source contributions and projects: Engaging with open-source projects allows you to collaborate with other developers, build a portfolio, and demonstrate your skills to potential employers. Contributing to open-source projects can be a valuable learning experience and a way to showcase your abilities.
  • Certifications: Industry-recognized certifications, such as those offered by organizations like Microsoft, Cisco, or AWS, can demonstrate your expertise in specific areas of computer science and increase your job prospects.

Alternative Web Resources to Learn Computer Science Skills

Whether you’re a beginner looking to dip your toes into the world of computer science or a seasoned professional seeking new areas to explore, there’s no better time to start utilizing these invaluable web resources:

  • Codecademy: Codecademy focuses on interactive coding tutorials for different programming languages, including Python, JavaScript, HTML/CSS, and more. It provides a hands-on learning experience with real-time code editors and exercises.
  • FreeCodeCamp: FreeCodeCamp is an interactive platform that offers coding challenges and projects to help you learn web development and other computer science skills. It covers topics like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and various frameworks.
  • Stack Overflow: Stack Overflow is a popular online community for programmers where you can ask questions, find answers, and engage in discussions related to computer science and programming. It’s a valuable resource for troubleshooting, gaining insights, and connecting with other developers.
  • GitHub: GitHub is a code hosting platform that also serves as a learning resource. You can explore open-source projects, collaborate with others, and contribute to existing projects to improve your coding skills and gain real-world experience.

8 Essentials Skills Needed to Become a Professional Computer Scientist

  • Programming: Proficiency in programming languages is fundamental for computer and information research scientists. You will learn how to write efficient and maintainable code, understand data structures and algorithms, and develop software solutions to solve problems.
  • Algorithm Design and Analysis: You will learn how to design and analyze algorithms, which are step-by-step procedures for solving computational problems. This skill is essential for optimizing performance, understanding efficiency, and evaluating trade-offs in algorithmic solutions.
  • Data Structures: Understanding data structures is crucial for organizing and manipulating data efficiently. Computer and information research scientists will learn about arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, trees, graphs, and other data structures that facilitate effective data management and retrieval.
  • Software Development: Computer scientists gain expertise in software development methodologies and practices. This includes understanding the software development life cycle, version control, debugging techniques, testing strategies, and writing maintainable and scalable code. It is one of the most common skill requirements in computer scientist job description.
  • Computer Architecture: You will learn about computer organization and architecture, understanding the hardware components, memory systems, and how software interacts with the underlying hardware infrastructure. This knowledge is valuable for optimizing software performance.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: With the increasing influence of AI and machine learning, computer scientists often delve into these areas. You can gain skills in building and training models, data analysis, pattern recognition, and developing intelligent systems. AI is also another commonly required skill in a computer scientist job description.
  • Database Systems: Understanding database management systems is important for handling data storage, retrieval, and manipulation. You will learn about structured query language (SQL), relational database design, normalization, and working with database systems efficiently.
  • Networking and Security: Computer scientists often acquire knowledge of computer networks, network protocols, and security fundamentals. This includes understanding network architectures, protocols, encryption, and implementing measures to protect systems and data.

Practical Experience in Computer Science: Employment, Internship & Job Opportunities

Computer and information research scientists are in luck when it comes to practical experience because there are countless internship and job opportunities out there waiting for you. These chances will give you the opportunity to work on exciting projects, utilize cutting-edge technology, and develop crucial professional skills and network. Interestingly, the computer science industry is not slowing down anytime soon, so there’s no better time to jump on board and start gaining some hands-on experience.

Internship Opportunities for a Computer Scientist Across Different Niches

  • Software Development Internship: Many companies offer internships focused on software development, where you can work on real-world projects, collaborate with experienced developers, and gain practical coding skills. These internships may involve front-end or back-end development, mobile app development, or working with specific programming languages and frameworks.
  • Data Science and Analytics Internship: Internships in data science and analytics involve working with large datasets, performing data analysis, applying machine learning techniques, and extracting insights. This can be in industries like finance, healthcare, e-commerce, or any field that relies on data-driven decision-making.
  • Cybersecurity Internship: With the increasing importance of cybersecurity, internships in this field provide opportunities to learn about and contribute to securing computer systems, networks, and data. You may work on tasks like vulnerability assessments, threat analysis, implementing security measures, or participating in incident response.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Internship: Internships in AI and machine learning allow you to work on projects related to natural language processing, computer vision, recommendation systems, or other AI applications. You may get hands-on experience with training models, working with data, and developing AI-based solutions.
  • Web Development and UI/UX Design Internship: These internships focus on designing and developing user-friendly websites, web applications, and user interfaces. You may gain experience in front-end development using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and frameworks like React or Angular. UI/UX design internships involve creating intuitive and visually appealing user interfaces.
  • IT and Systems Internship: Internships in IT departments allow you to gain experience in managing computer systems, troubleshooting hardware or software issues, setting up networks, or working on infrastructure projects. This can be in organizations of various sizes, from startups to large enterprises.
  • Gaming and Virtual Reality Internship: Internships in the gaming industry involve game development, graphics programming, virtual reality (VR), or augmented reality (AR) projects. Computer and information research scientists may work on designing game mechanics, creating game assets, or implementing VR/AR experiences.

Top 10 High-demand Job Opportunities for Computer Science Experts

In the fast-paced world of technology, computer science experts are in high demand for roles, such as:

  • Software Developer/Engineer
  • Data Scientist/Analyst
  • Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning Engineer
  • Cybersecurity Analyst/Engineer
  • Systems Analyst/Architect
  • Database Administrator
  • IT Project Manager
  • Research Scientist
  • User Experience/User Interface (UX/UI) Designer
  • Technical Consultant

Industries and Companies That Hire Computer Scientists

  • Technology Companies
  • Software Development Companies
  • IT Consulting Firms
  • Financial Institutions
  • Healthcare Organizations
  • Government Agencies
  • Research Institutions
  • Academic Institutions
  • Startups
  • E-commerce Companies
  • Entertainment Industry (gaming, animation, etc.)
  • Telecommunications Companies
  • Manufacturing Companies with a Focus on Technology
  • Transportation and Logistics Companies
  • Energy and Utility Companies
  • Defense and Security Organizations
  • Digital Marketing Agencies
  • Media and Broadcasting Companies

Finding a Balance in the Life of a Computer Scientist

Computer scientists typically enjoy great work arrangements with remote options, flexible hours, and location independence, promoting better personal commitment management and work-life balance. Their schedules can adapt to optimize productivity, although project demands may require additional hours during critical phases.

Essentially, finding remote work opportunities provide autonomy, reduced commuting, and increased work-life balance. The project-based nature of their work allows for breaks and downtime between milestones, supporting work-life balance. Company culture plays a role as well, with organizations prioritizing work-life balance through policies, initiatives, and a supportive environment.

Most importantly, personal time management, effective task prioritization, and setting boundaries contribute to maintaining balance, while continuous learning and skill development strike a harmony between work-related and personal interests, fostering a well-rounded lifestyle.

What’s the Career Outlook for Computer Scientist?

With the rapid advancement of technology and digital transformation across industries, there is a consistently high demand for skilled computer and information research scientists. Computer and information research scientists can anticipate a 21% increase from 2021 to 2031, which is higher compared to the average percentage of other professions.

Thus, there will be approximately 3,300 computer and information research scientists job openings per year over the next decade. The competitive computer scientist salary, entrepreneurial prospects, and global demand make computer science an attractive field. Overall, the career outlook for computer scientists is promising, with ample opportunities for growth, innovation, and contribution to society.

Computer Scientist Popular Career Specialties

Should I become a Computer Scientist?

Deciding whether to become a computer scientist is not a trivial matter and requires careful consideration of many factors. After reading this article, you now have a better idea of what the field entails, what skills you need, and what opportunities you can pursue. But don’t let the facts alone sway your decision.

Remember that your personal interests, passions, and strengths should also come into play. Are you a problem solver at heart? Do you enjoy learning new technologies and tools? Do you like working in teams or on your own? These are some of the questions you should ask yourself before committing to a career in computer science.

Once you’ve made up your mind, keep in mind that your long-term goals and aspirations can help you navigate the ever-changing landscape of the tech industry. Whether you want to start your own business, work for a non-profit, or pursue a Ph.D., the knowledge and skills you acquire as a computer scientist can open up many doors and opportunities. So, be confident and stay curious!

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Ajoke Aminu

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