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How to Become a Computer Programmer

By Andrea Delgado


Computer programming has emerged as a highly sought-after skill in today’s technology-driven world. Computer programmers play a vital role in shaping the digital landscape, from developing software applications to creating innovative solutions. This article will provide essential insights into the skills and requirements needed to embark on a successful journey toward becoming a computer programmer, helping aspiring individuals navigate the path to a rewarding career in programming.

Career Summary

Computer Programmer Salary

The salary range for Computer Programmers can vary significantly depending on different factors. Here is a general overview of a computer programmer’s salary range from entry-level to executive positions according to data from

  • Entry Salary (US$66k)
  • Median Salary (US$73k)
  • Executive Salary (US$105k)

The average income of Computer Programmers in the United States is generally higher than the national average income for all occupations, which was around US$61,900 in May 2022, according to the BLS.

What Does a Computer Programmer Do?

A computer programmer is responsible for writing, testing, and maintaining code that enables computer systems and software applications to function. They analyze user needs and design programs to meet those requirements, utilizing various programming languages and tools. Additionally, computer programmers debug and troubleshoot programs, ensuring they run smoothly and efficiently.

Computer Programmer Career Progression

Career progression for computer programmers can vary based on individual skills, experience, and professional goals.

Here are three general stages of career progression:

  • Entry-Level Programmer: At the beginning of their career, computer programmers often start as entry-level developers or junior programmers. They typically work under the guidance of senior programmers and focus on tasks such as coding, testing, and debugging software applications.
  • Mid-Level Programmer: In this stage, programmers take on more complex tasks, work on larger projects, and may have opportunities to lead small teams. Mid-level programmers are responsible for designing and implementing software solutions, optimizing code, and collaborating with other stakeholders.
  • Senior Programmer or Software Architect: The senior programmer or software architect level represents the highest level of expertise and responsibility in the programming career path. They often have extensive experience and a deep understanding of programming languages, frameworks, and system architecture. They are involved in strategic decision-making, lead large-scale development projects, and provide technical guidance to other team members.
Computer Programmer Career Progression


  • Problem-Solving
  • Job Demand
  • Flexibility and Remote Work
  • Competitive Salaries


  • Long Hours and High Workloads
  • Continuous Learning and Rapid Technological Changes
  • Isolation and Limited Social Interaction
  • Repetitive Tasks and Maintenance Work

Useful Skills to Have as a Computer Programmer

  • Programming Languages
  • Data Structures and Algorithms
  • Debugging and Troubleshooting
  • Version Control
  • Software Development Lifecycle

Popular Computer Programmer Specialties

  • Full-Stack Developer
  • Front-End Developer
  • Back-End Developer
  • Mobile App Developer
  • Data Scientist
  • DevOps Engineer
  • Security Engineer
  • Game Developer
  • Embedded Systems Developer
  • AI/ML Engineer

How to become a Computer Programmer

Computer Programmer 5 Steps to Career

To become a computer programmer, you can follow these common steps:

  • Obtain a High School Diploma or Equivalent: Start by completing your high school education or obtaining a General Education Development (GED) certificate. Focus on subjects like mathematics, computer science, and programming if available.
  • Earn a Bachelor’s Degree (Optional): While not always required, a bachelor’s degree in computer science, software engineering, or a related field can provide a solid foundation and improve your job prospects. Pursuing a degree also offers opportunities for internships and networking.
  • Learn Programming Languages: Familiarize yourself with programming languages commonly used in the industry, such as Python, Java, C++, or JavaScript. Online tutorials, coding boot camps, and self-study resources can help you gain proficiency.
  • Practice and Build Projects: Enhance your skills by practicing coding and building small projects. Start with simple exercises and gradually take on more complex challenges. This hands-on experience will help you develop problem-solving abilities and improve your coding proficiency.
  • Gain Practical Experience: Look for internship or entry-level positions that allow you to gain practical experience in a professional setting. Working on real-world projects and collaborating with other programmers will provide valuable insights and enhance your skill set.
  • Expand Your Knowledge: Continuously learn and explore new technologies, programming languages, and frameworks. Attend workshops, participate in online communities, and engage in self-study to stay updated with the latest trends in the field.
  • Build a Portfolio: Develop a portfolio showcasing your coding projects and accomplishments. This portfolio will serve as evidence of your skills and can be shared with potential employers or clients to demonstrate your abilities.
  • Network and Connect: Attend industry events, join programming communities, and connect with professionals in the field. Networking can provide valuable opportunities, mentorship, and insights into job openings.
  • Apply for Jobs and Internships: Start applying for programming jobs or internships that align with your skills and career goals. Tailor your resume and cover letter to highlight relevant experiences and projects.
  • Interview Preparation: Prepare for interviews by researching common programming interview questions and practicing coding problems. Showcase your problem-solving abilities, communication skills, and passion for programming during the interview process.

Remember, the path to becoming a computer programmer can vary, and alternative routes, such as coding boot camps or self-study, can also be effective. The key is to focus on continuous learning, practical experience, and building a strong foundation in programming concepts.

Average Time and Costs of Obtaining a Degree in Computer Programming

The time and costs of obtaining a degree in Computer Programming can vary depending on several factors, such as the type of degree, the institution, and whether you pursue full-time or part-time studies.

Here are some general considerations:

  • Time: A degree in Computer Programming, such as a bachelor’s degree, typically takes 3 to 4 years of full-time study. However, the duration can vary based on factors like credit requirements, program structure, and the pace at which you complete your coursework.
  • Costs: The costs of obtaining a degree in Computer Programming can vary significantly depending on factors like the institution’s tuition fees, location, and whether you qualify for any scholarships or financial aid. On average, tuition for a bachelor’s degree in Computer Programming in the United States can range from $20,000 to $60,000 per year, depending on the school.

It’s important to note that these estimates are approximate and can differ based on individual circumstances and choices. Additionally, pursuing an associate degree or diploma in Computer Programming may require a shorter time commitment and have lower costs compared to a bachelor’s degree program.

To get accurate and up-to-date information on the specific time and costs associated with obtaining a degree in Computer Programming, it’s recommended to research and reach out to the institutions you are interested in attending. They can provide detailed information regarding their program durations, tuition fees, and financial aid options.

Internship Opportunities for Computer Programmers

Internship opportunities for computer programmers can provide valuable hands-on experience and help individuals apply their programming skills in a professional setting.

Here are some potential avenues for finding internship opportunities:

  • University Programs: Many universities and colleges have career services departments that can assist students in finding internships. They may have partnerships with local businesses or technology companies that offer internship programs specifically for computer programming students.
  • Tech Companies: Large technology companies often have formal internship programs aimed at providing practical experience to aspiring programmers. Companies like Google, Microsoft, IBM, and Apple offer internships for computer programming students. Check their websites for information on application deadlines and requirements.
  • Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs): SMEs and startups are also great places to find internship opportunities. These organizations may have less formal internship programs but can provide hands-on experience and the chance to work on diverse projects.
  • Professional Networks and Job Boards: Utilize online job boards and professional networking platforms like LinkedIn to search for internship opportunities. Many companies post internship positions on these platforms, allowing you to directly apply or connect with hiring managers.
  • Government and Non-profit Organizations: Government agencies and non-profit organizations also offer internship programs for computer programmers. These opportunities may focus on specific areas like cybersecurity, data analysis, or software development for social impact.
  • Personal Networking: Tap into your personal network, including friends, family, and professors, to inquire about internship opportunities. Sometimes, companies may not advertise internships publicly but could be open to taking on interns through personal connections.

Can I Become a Computer Programmer through Online Education?

Yes, it is possible to become a computer programmer through online education. Online education has become increasingly popular and widely accepted, providing flexible learning options for individuals interested in pursuing a career in computer programming.

Here are some key points to consider:

  • Online Coding Bootcamps: Online coding boot camps offer intensive, focused training programs that teach programming skills in a relatively short period. These boot camps often provide a structured curriculum, hands-on projects, mentorship, and career support. They can be an efficient way to learn programming and gain practical skills.
  • Online Degree Programs: Many universities and colleges offer online degree programs in computer science, software engineering, or related fields. These programs provide comprehensive education, cover theoretical and practical aspects of programming, and lead to a recognized degree.
  • Self-paced Learning: Online platforms and resources, such as interactive coding tutorials, video lectures, and coding challenges, enable self-paced learning. Websites like Codecademy, FreeCodeCamp, Mozilla Developer Network, and W3Schools offer a wide range of programming courses that you can complete at your own pace.
  • Virtual Coding Communities: Online coding communities and forums provide platforms for asking questions, sharing knowledge, and collaborating with other programmers. Platforms like GitHub, Stack Overflow, and CodePen allow you to engage with the programming community, showcase your projects, and seek feedback.

What is the Work-Life Balance of a Computer Programmer?

The work-life balance of computer programmers can vary, but in general, they often work standard full-time hours of around 40 hours per week. Some flexibility in work hours may be available, especially for freelancers or remote positions. There may be occasional overtime during project deadlines, and the nature of programming work requires focus and concentration. Remote work opportunities and continuous learning are also common in the field. Balancing work and personal life involves setting boundaries and prioritizing well-being.

What Skills Will I Learn as a Computer Programmer

As a computer programmer, several useful skills can enhance your abilities and contribute to your success in the field.

Here are some important skills to have as a computer programmer:

  • Programming Languages: Proficiency in programming languages such as Python, Java, C++, JavaScript, or Ruby is essential. The ability to write clean, efficient, and well-structured code in multiple languages expands your versatility and widens the range of projects you can undertake.
  • Problem-Solving: Strong problem-solving skills are crucial for programmers. The ability to analyze complex issues, break them down into smaller parts, and develop effective solutions through logical thinking and algorithmic design is fundamental to programming.
  • Data Structures and Algorithms: Understanding data structures (e.g., arrays, linked lists, trees) and algorithms (e.g., sorting, searching) is vital for efficient program design and optimization. Knowledge of these foundational concepts helps you select the right data structures and implement algorithms that enhance program performance.
  • Debugging and Troubleshooting: Effective debugging skills allow you to identify and fix errors in code efficiently. Being able to analyze and trace code execution, utilize debugging tools, and employ systematic approaches to identify and resolve issues is invaluable in programming.
  • Version Control: Proficiency in version control systems like Git enables you to manage code repositories, collaborate with other developers, track changes, and handle code merges efficiently. Understanding how to use branching, merging, and commit mechanisms facilitates effective team collaboration and code management.
  • Software Development Lifecycle: Familiarity with the software development lifecycle (SDLC) helps you navigate through various stages, from requirements gathering and design to testing and deployment. Understanding methodologies like Agile or Scrum can aid in effective project management and collaboration.
  • Communication and Collaboration: Strong communication skills facilitate effective collaboration with team members, clients, and stakeholders. Being able to explain complex technical concepts, actively listen, and work well within a team environment enhances project success and fosters positive professional relationships.
  • Attention to Detail: Attention to detail is crucial in programming to ensure accuracy and minimize errors. Paying close attention to syntax, logic, and code documentation helps produce high-quality, bug-free code.
  • Time Management: Effective time management skills are essential to meet project deadlines and handle multiple tasks efficiently. Being able to prioritize work, manage resources, and allocate time appropriately allows for the timely delivery of projects.

What’s the Career Outlook for Computer Programmer?

According to the BLS, employment of computer programmers is projected to decline 10 percent from 2021 to 2031. Despite declining employment, about 9,600 openings for computer programmers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. All of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Computer Programmer Popular Career Specialties

Popular Computer Programmer Specialties

Computer programming offers various specialties that allow professionals to focus on specific areas and become experts in their chosen domains.

Here are some popular computer programmer specialties:

  • Front-End Developer: Front-end developers specialize in creating user interfaces and interactive elements that users directly interact with. They are skilled in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and frameworks like React or Angular.
  • Back-End Developer: Back-end developers focus on the server-side logic and infrastructure that supports web applications. They work with languages like Python, Java, or Node.js, and handle tasks such as database management, API integration, and server configuration.
  • Full-Stack Developer: Full-stack developers are proficient in both front-end and back-end development. They can handle the complete development process, from designing user interfaces to implementing server-side logic and databases.
  • Mobile App Developer: Mobile app developers specialize in creating applications for mobile platforms, such as iOS or Android. They have expertise in programming languages like Swift or Objective-C for iOS, or Java or Kotlin for Android.
  • Data Scientist: Data scientists use programming skills to analyze and interpret complex data sets. They apply statistical modeling, machine learning, and data visualization techniques to extract insights and make data-driven decisions.
  • DevOps Engineer: DevOps engineers focus on streamlining the development and deployment process by integrating development and operations. They use programming skills to automate infrastructure management, build deployment pipelines, and ensure efficient collaboration between development and operations teams.
  • Security Engineer: Security engineers specialize in securing computer systems and networks against cyber threats. They develop secure codes, conduct vulnerability assessments, and implement security protocols to protect sensitive data and prevent unauthorized access.
  • Game Developer: Game developers specialize in programming interactive and immersive video games. They use game development frameworks, graphics libraries, and programming languages like C++, C#, or Unity to create game mechanics, implement physics, and develop engaging gameplay experiences.
  • Embedded Systems Developer: Embedded systems developers work on programming software for embedded systems like microcontrollers, IoT devices, or automotive systems. They develop low-level code, interface with hardware components, and optimize system performance.
  • AI/ML Engineer: AI/ML engineers specialize in programming artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. They build and train models, implement algorithms, and work with large datasets to develop intelligent systems and applications.

What Type of Companies Hire Computer Programmers?

Computer programmers are in demand across various industries.

Here are some types of companies that commonly hire computer programmers:

  • Technology Companies: Companies specializing in software development, technology services, or computer hardware often hire computer programmers. These can include large tech giants like Microsoft, Google, Apple, and IBM, as well as smaller startups focused on software or app development.
  • Financial Institutions: Banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions rely heavily on computer programming for their software systems, algorithms, and data analysis. They often hire programmers to develop and maintain their software infrastructure.
  • E-commerce and Retail Companies: Online retailers and e-commerce platforms heavily rely on computer programming for website development, inventory management, and order processing. Companies like Amazon, eBay, and Shopify hire programmers to support their digital platforms.
  • Gaming and Entertainment Industry: Video game development studios and entertainment companies hire programmers to create game mechanics, develop virtual environments, and write code for graphics and sound effects.
  • Government Agencies: Government organizations at various levels employ computer programmers to develop and maintain software systems, manage databases, and support digital infrastructure.
  • Consulting Firms: Consulting firms that provide technology solutions and services often have programming teams to develop custom software solutions for their clients.
  • Educational Institutions: Universities, colleges, and schools employ programmers to support their educational technology systems, develop e-learning platforms, and maintain student information systems.
  • Research and Development Organizations: Research institutions and laboratories hire programmers to support scientific research, develop simulation models, and analyze data.

Should I become a Computer Programmer?

Deciding whether to pursue a career as a computer programmer is a personal choice that depends on your interests, skills, and career aspirations.

Here are a few factors to consider when making this decision:

  • Interest in Programming: Assess your level of interest and enjoyment in programming. If you find joy in problem-solving, logical thinking, and working with technology, a career as a computer programmer can be fulfilling.
  • Aptitude for Programming: Evaluate your aptitude for programming. While programming skills can be learned and developed, having a natural inclination towards logic, attention to detail, and analytical thinking can make the learning process smoother.
  • Career Growth and Development: Explore the potential for career growth and advancement in programming. With experience and specialization, you can progress to roles like software architect, team lead, or project manager. Continuous learning and keeping up with industry trends are essential for career development.
  • Work Environment and Culture: Understand the work environment and culture typically associated with programming. Computer programming often involves working independently or in small teams, with a focus on problem-solving and attention to detail. Assess if this aligns with your work style and preferences.
  • Future Technological Advancements: Anticipate the future of technology and its potential impact on programming. Programming languages and frameworks evolve rapidly, and staying updated with emerging technologies may be necessary for long-term career sustainability.

Ultimately, the decision to become a computer programmer should be based on a combination of your interests, skills, job prospects, and personal preferences. It can be helpful to explore programming through online tutorials, coding challenges, or introductory courses to get a taste of the field before committing to a career path. Additionally, speaking with professionals in the industry or seeking mentorship can provide valuable insights to inform your decision-making process.

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Andrea Delgado

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