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How to Become a Clinical Psychologist

By Stephen Carrozzino


Are you fascinated by the complexities of the human mind and driven to help others overcome their mental hurdles? If so, the path to becoming a clinical psychologist may be your true vocation. Join us on a transformative exploration of the necessary steps, skills, and knowledge to forge a fulfilling career in this noble profession.

Career Summary

Clinical Psychologist Salary

Clinical Psychologist Salary

According to, clinical psychologists in the US typically earned:

  • Entry Salary (US$64k)
  • Median Salary (US$95k)
  • Executive Salary (US$152k)

Compared to the general average income of US citizens, these figures suggest that Clinical Psychologists typically earn a mid to high income salary.

What do Clinical Psychologists do?

Clinical psychologists work with individuals, couples, groups, and families to help them cope with mental health issues, life challenges, and various types of psychological distress. They conduct assessments and diagnose mental health conditions, develop treatment plans, and provide psychotherapy services.

Clinical Psychologist Career Progression

  • Graduate Intern: Students still pursuing their doctoral degree often work as interns, where they gain supervised experience in a clinical setting.
  • Postdoctoral Fellow: After earning their degree, psychologists may complete a fellowship for further specialized training.
  • Licensed Clinical Psychologist: After licensure, psychologists can practice independently and provide a range of psychological services.
  • Senior Clinical Psychologist: With years of experience, psychologists might supervise other clinicians, oversee programs, or lead clinical teams.
  • Clinical Director or Executive Director: At the highest levels, psychologists may oversee all clinical operations at a practice, hospital, or agency.
Clinical Psychologist Career Progression


  • Having the opportunity to positively impact people’s lives.
  • Intellectual stimulation due to the variety and complexity of cases.
  • Diverse work settings (hospitals, schools, private practice, etc.).
  • A high degree of autonomy in many roles.
  • Potential for a strong salary with experience.


  • Emotional stress from dealing with clients’ serious problems.
  • The challenge of dealing with insurance companies for compensation.
  • High level of responsibility and potential liability.
  • Long, often irregular working hours.
  • The time and cost of obtaining education and licensure.

Useful Skills to Have as a Clinical Psychologist

  • Excellent Communication Skills
  • Empathy and Emotional Resilience
  • Analytical Thinking
  • Patience and Perseverance
  • Knowledge of Different Therapeutic Methods

Popular Clinical Psychologist Specialties

  • Child and Adolescent Psychology
  • Geriatric Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Forensic Psychology

How to become a Clinical Psychologist

Clinical Psychologist 5 Steps to Career

The path to becoming a clinical psychologist involves various steps, including an in-depth educational journey. In this article, we’ll guide you through the key milestones in this process.

Education: The First Step Towards Becoming a Clinical Psychologist

The cornerstone of the profession is education. If you’re considering entering the field, it’s important to understand what this journey entails. Let’s dive deeper and explore the vital steps.

Do I Need a Degree to Become a Clinical Psychologist?

Yes, you do need a degree to become a clinical psychologist. The profession demands a high level of knowledge and expertise, and a degree provides the necessary foundation. But it doesn’t end with a bachelor’s degree. The journey typically involves a sequence of educational milestones, culminating in a doctorate.

Why Is It Important to Get a Degree in Clinical Psychology?

Getting a degree in clinical psychology equips you with the specialized skills and knowledge required to support individuals dealing with mental health issues. It’s about more than just theory. Through your degree, you’ll gain practical exposure to various therapeutic techniques, research methodologies, and ethical considerations. It’s this combination of theory and practice that prepares you to make a positive impact on people’s lives.

How Long Does It Take to Get a Degree in Clinical Psychology?

The time it takes to earn your degree varies depending on the level. A bachelor’s degree typically takes around four years to complete. After this, you’ll need to pursue a master’s degree, which can take an additional two years. Finally, you’ll need a doctorate to become a fully licensed clinical psychologist, which takes an additional four to seven years. So, you’re looking at approximately 10-13 years in total.

How Much Does It Cost to Study Clinical Psychology at University?

Costs for studying clinical psychology can vary widely, depending on factors like the university, the specific program, and your residency status. As of now, the average total cost for in-state students at a public university can be around $38,000, while for private universities, it can exceed $120,000. Bear in mind that these are averages, and actual costs can be higher or lower.

However, don’t let these numbers intimidate you! There are numerous scholarships, grants, and loans available that can make your dream of becoming a clinical psychologist achievable.

Can I Become a Clinical Psychologist Through Online Education?

Yes, you can become a clinical psychologist through online education. Many universities offer accredited online programs that allow you to earn your degree at your own pace and convenience. However, remember that practical experience is a key part of your training, so you’ll still need to complete in-person internships and supervised hours.

What Are Some Web Resources to Learn Skills to Become a Clinical Psychologist?

The Internet offers a plethora of resources to complement your formal education. Websites like the American Psychological Association (APA) and the National Institute of Mental Health provide comprehensive, trustworthy resources. Beyond these, there are additional online platforms that prove exceptionally beneficial. Let’s name a few:

  • offers a comprehensive suite of resources for both novices and seasoned professionals. This online platform serves as a central hub for exploring psychology’s many subfields. It includes an extensive database of psychology programs, a guide to accreditation, career paths in psychology, and various educational resources like articles and study guides that encapsulate the current state of psychological research and practice.
  • Psych Central has positioned itself as an independent mental health network since its inception in 1995. This resource offers a rich repository of mental health articles, blogs, and forums to enhance understanding of mental health issues. It is further enriched by diagnostic quizzes, a therapist directory, and daily news about the latest happenings in the mental health field. This resource caters to those interested in a more practical understanding of psychology, emphasizing the application of psychological theories and research in everyday life.
  • Online Counseling Programs presents itself as a vital resource for those seeking a future in counseling or therapists looking to advance their skills. This platform features information about different types of counseling degrees, state-by-state licensing requirements, various types of counseling and psychology professions, as well as a blog covering a broad range of topics in the field. It also offers an exhaustive list of online counseling programs, providing potential students with the means to compare and choose the program that best suits their professional objectives.

Practical Experience

Internship Opportunities for Clinical Psychologists

Clinical psychology, like other healthcare disciplines, values experiential learning. Internships provide trainees with opportunities to work directly with clients, participate in treatment planning, and receive supervision from seasoned professionals. This hands-on exposure not only refines their clinical skills but also enhances their understanding of psychological theories in real-world settings.

Let’s explore some common types of internships available for clinical psychologists:

  • Mental Health Clinics: Internships in mental health clinics provide interns with the opportunity to work with clients across the lifespan. Interns may conduct therapy sessions, develop treatment plans, and liaise with other mental health professionals to provide holistic care. As an intern, you may get the chance to provide individual or group counseling sessions to students. This can be an incredibly rewarding experience.
  • Research Internships: The heart of these internships is the research process itself. As an intern, you’ll have a chance to involve yourself in various stages of research, from inception to fruition. You might find yourself brainstorming hypotheses, designing studies to test these hypotheses, or creating surveys or other tools to collect data. This stage of the process is like being an explorer setting out on an adventure – you have a question in mind, and you’re mapping out the path to find the answer. Then comes the data collection phase. Depending on the study, you might be involved in running experimental procedures, conducting interviews, or observing behaviors. Once you’ve collected your data, it’s time for analysis. You’re sifting through your data, looking for patterns, drawing connections, and using statistical tools to uncover the story that your data is trying to tell. It can be challenging, but also incredibly exciting when you start to see the results unfold.
  • School-Based Internships: One of the key responsibilities of psychology interns in a school setting is conducting assessments for students. This could involve evaluating students for various learning disorders, behavioral issues, or even emotional challenges. This is an intricate process, requiring a deep understanding of different psychometric tests and observational techniques.
  • Beyond Internships: Post-doctoral fellowships offer further specialized training beyond internships, enabling clinical psychologists to gain more in-depth knowledge in their areas of interest, such as neuropsychology, child psychology, or health psychology.

Key Skills Acquired as a Clinical Psychologist

  • Clinical Skills: Clinical psychology involves a lot more than just talking to people. In this field, you’ll learn to conduct comprehensive assessments to understand a person’s mental health. This means identifying and diagnosing various mental health disorders, something that requires a deep understanding of human psychology.
  • Interpersonal Skills: Clinical psychologists work with a broad range of people from different backgrounds, cultures, and walks of life. This diverse clientele necessitates strong interpersonal skills. These include active listening, where you pay close attention to the client’s words, body language, and non-verbal cues.
  • Empathy: Or being able to understand and share the feelings of others. This isn’t about feeling sorry for someone; it’s about understanding their world.
  • Communication Skills: Essential to clearly convey your thoughts and feedback to clients. And let’s not forget about cultural competence, which is about being sensitive to and respectful of cultural differences during therapy.
  • Ethical Decision-Making: Working in clinical psychology comes with a significant responsibility. You’ll often face ethical dilemmas that require you to make tough decisions while respecting client confidentiality and professional guidelines. This ethical decision-making process is a crucial skill. It’s all about balancing the best interests of your clients, the principles of your profession, and sometimes even the law.
  • Research Skills: Not everything in clinical psychology is about one-on-one sessions with clients. A big part of this field is also about research. As a clinical psychologist, you could find yourself engaged in research activities, where you’ll develop skills in data analysis, research design, and academic writing. Supervision and Consultation Skills: As you advance in your career, you’ll likely have opportunities to supervise more junior trainees. This not only means sharing your wisdom and experiences but also helps you develop leadership and mentorship skills. Supervision involves providing feedback, fostering growth, and promoting ethical practice — and doing it in a way that empowers the next generation of psychologists.

Understanding the Work-Life Balance of a Clinical Psychologist

The work-life balance of a clinical psychologist can be complex and varies depending on the work setting, the population served, and the psychologist’s areas of expertise.

Let’s explore some key considerations.

  • Flexible but Challenging: When it comes to flexibility, clinical psychologists often have a bit of leeway. Many have the autonomy to determine their own hours. This could mean choosing to start early and finish early, or perhaps work later in the day, depending on the needs of their clients and personal preferences. This flexibility can be a big plus for maintaining a healthy work-life balance, as it provides room for personal commitments, hobbies, and downtime. However, the profession isn’t without its trials. The very nature of the job requires dealing with intense and sometimes distressing situations. This is where the ability to separate work from personal life becomes essential. A clinical psychologist needs to be emotionally resilient, and practicing regular self-care is a must. This could be anything from mindfulness meditation, and physical activity, to even a relaxing hobby – anything that helps them recharge and maintain emotional health.
  • Balancing Clinical Work and Research: Moreover, many clinical psychologists juggle client work with other professional responsibilities, like research or teaching. This diversity can certainly make the work more interesting and stimulating. However, it may also present unique challenges in terms of time management. Prioritizing tasks and effective scheduling becomes vital in such a scenario. Having a balanced mix of activities could mean dedicating specific days for research or teaching, while other days are reserved for seeing clients.
  • Managing Stress: Finally, due to the nature of their work, stress management becomes paramount for clinical psychologists. They often have systems in place such as regular supervision, where they can discuss challenging cases with senior colleagues or peers. This collaborative approach can help them gain new perspectives, learn from others’ experiences, and reduce the feeling of being ‘alone’ in dealing with difficult situations. In addition, psychologists might engage in regular peer support sessions or activities promoting mental well-being, such as yoga or mindfulness classes.

What’s the Career Outlook for Clinical Psychologists?

There is significant demand for clinical psychologists in the USA. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the employment of psychologists, in general, is projected to grow 6% from 2021 to 2031, about as fast as the average for all occupations. However, the demand for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists is expected to grow at a higher rate due to increased awareness of mental health and the growing need for psychological services in schools, hospitals, mental health centers, and social service agencies.

Clinical Psychologist Popular Career Specialties

Job Opportunities for Clinical Psychologists

There is a wide array of job opportunities available for clinical psychologists. These professionals can work in diverse settings, including hospitals, mental health clinics, research institutions, government agencies, and educational institutions.

  • Private Practice: Many clinical psychologists establish their own private practices, providing psychotherapy services to individuals, couples, families, or groups.
  • Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities: These professionals often work in tandem with other healthcare providers to form a comprehensive treatment plan for patients.
  • Educational Institutions: Schools and universities employ clinical psychologists to assist students with mental health issues, conduct research, or teach.
  • Research Institutions: Clinical psychologists can also work in research-based roles, contributing to the broader understanding of mental health and behavioral disorders.
  • Government Agencies: From federal health departments to state and local agencies, there are myriad roles for clinical psychologists.

What Type of Companies Hire a Clinical Psychologist?

The range of companies hiring clinical psychologists is extensive. Aside from private practices, a variety of sectors employ these professionals.

  • Healthcare Companies: Healthcare providers like hospitals, health insurance companies, and home healthcare agencies regularly employ clinical psychologists.
  • Educational Companies: School boards, colleges, and universities often hire clinical psychologists to support student mental health or contribute to research.
  • Consulting Firms: Clinical psychologists may work for consulting firms that provide mental health services to other organizations.
  • Pharmaceutical Companies: These firms often hire clinical psychologists for research roles, particularly in the development and testing of psychiatric medications.
  • Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs): Many companies have EAPs that offer mental health and counseling services to their employees. Clinical psychologists may be employed by EAPs to provide therapy, stress management, and support to employees.
  • Nonprofit Organizations: Nonprofit organizations focused on mental health, substance abuse, trauma, or specific populations (e.g., children, refugees, domestic violence survivors) may hire clinical psychologists to provide services, conduct research, or develop and implement programs.
  • Rehabilitation Centers: Clinical psychologists may be employed in rehabilitation centers, working with individuals who have experienced physical injuries, chronic illnesses, or disabilities, helping them cope with emotional and psychological challenges related to their condition.

Should I become a Clinical Psychologist?

Answering this question involves a bit of self-reflection. First, consider if you possess or are willing to develop the skills and traits we’ve just discussed. Do you enjoy helping others? Are you patient and empathetic? Do you like problem-solving and understanding the human mind?

Secondly, think about your long-term career goals. Clinical psychology is a field that requires a significant commitment in terms of education and time. Can you see yourself investing the necessary resources to succeed in this field?

And lastly, consider the lifestyle of a clinical psychologist. There will be tough cases, emotionally charged sessions, and periods of self-doubt. Are you prepared for these challenges? On the flip side, the profession can be incredibly rewarding, offering you the chance to make a profound impact on your clients’ lives.

Deciding whether clinical psychology is for you is a deeply personal decision. It might help to speak with a career counselor or professionals in the field to gain further insights. Remember, choosing a career is a journey, and it’s okay to take your time to explore your options and make sure you’re headed in the right direction.

Careers Related to Clinical Psychologist

Frequently Asked Questions

What’s the difference between a Psychiatrist and a Clinical Psychologist?

While both professions work with individuals struggling with mental health issues, psychiatrists are medical doctors who can prescribe medication, while clinical psychologists typically focus on psychotherapy and behavioral interventions.

Do I need to get licensed to be a Clinical Psychologist?

Yes, all states require psychologists to be licensed to practice independently. This usually involves completing supervised professional experience and passing an examination.

Can a Clinical Psychologist open their own practice?

Absolutely! Many Clinical Psychologists choose to open their own private practice, though this often happens after gaining a few years of experience in the field.

How long does it take to become a Clinical Psychologist?

Between your undergraduate studies, graduate program, and post-doctoral work, it usually takes about 8-10 years of education and training after high school to become a licensed Clinical Psychologist.

What does a typical day look like for a Clinical Psychologist?

While it can vary based on your work setting, typical tasks include conducting psychological assessments, providing therapy to clients, writing reports, consulting with other healthcare providers, and possibly doing research or teaching.

Stephen Carrozzino

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